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The Hon'ble Chief Justice 

M.A., D.U D.Sc., Ph.D., 
the greatest educationist of modern India, 

a true friend and patron to all scholars, 

the ONE MAN of the University of Calcutta, 

this philosophical essay 

is respectfully dedicated 

as a token of great personal admiration, 


This book was hurriedly written as the Griffith Prize 
essay as early as 1914, aud it is published in a great 
hurry on the eve of my departure for England. Had it 
not been for the encouragement of the Hon'ble Chief 
Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt., C.S.I., the great 
patron of learning, this essay would never have been 
published. I have tried to give here an account of the 
Yoga System of thought as contained in the Yoga Sutra 
of Patanjali as interpreted by Vyasa, Vachaspati and 
Vijnana Bhikshu with occasional references to the views 
of other systems. My work " Yoga Philosophy in relation 
to other Indian Systems of Thought " which I hope will 
be published shortly by the University of Calcutta is a 
more advanced and comprehensive work than the present 
attempt. But since it may yet take some time before 
that book is published I do not much hesitate to publish 
this essay. This is my earliest attempt on Indian Philo- 
sophy and no one probably is more conscious of its 
defects as myself. As I had to stay far away from 
Calcutta at Chittagong and as I had no time in my hands 
owing to my departure to England, I do very much regret 
that I could not properly supervise the work of its 
printing. Many errors of printing have consequently 
escaped. It is however hoped that the errors may not be 
such that they will inconvenience the reader much. So 
little work has up till now been done in the field of Indian 
Philosophy that in spite of its many defects, the author 


has some excuse in publishing it. The author will 
consider all his labours rewarded if this essay is found 
to be of any use in any quarter. 

It may seem convenient that before entering into the 
details of the work I should give a brief outline of the 
Yoga System of Patanjali at the very beginning of the 
work, which I hope may be of some use to the beginners. 

The Study of Patanjali 

However dogmatic a system of philosophical enquiry 

may appear to us, it must have been preceded by a 

criticism of the observed facts of 

Introductory. ... 

knowledge. The details of the criticism 
and the processes of self-argumentation by which the 
thinker arrived at his theory of the Universe might 
indeed be suppressed, as being relatively unimportant 
but a thoughtful reader would detect them as lying in 
the background behind the shadow of the general 
speculations, but at the same time setting them off 
before our view. An Aristotle or a Patanjali may 
not make any direct mention of the arguments which led 
them to a dogmatic assertion of their theories, but for a 
reader who intends to understand them thoroughly it is 
absolutely necessary that he should read theiri in the light 
as far as possible of the inferred presuppositions and 
inner arguments of their minds ; it is in this way alone 
that he can put himself in the same line of thinking 
with the thinker he is willing to follow and can grasp 
him to the fullest extent. In offering this short study of 
the Patanjala metaphysics, I shall therefore try to supple- 
ment it with such of my inferences of the presupposi- 
tions of Patanjali's mind, which I think will add to the 
clearness of the exposition of his views, though 1 am 
fully alive to the difficulties of making such inferences 
about a philosopher whose psychological, social, religious 
and moral environments differed so widely from ours. 


An entity into the relations of the mental phenomena 
to the physical has sometimes given the first start to philo- 
sophy. The relation of mind to 
Philosophical enqui- matter j s suc h an important problem 

ries based on the rela- . . 

tions of mind and o f Philosophy that the existing 

philosophical systems may roughly be 
classified according to the relative importance that has 
been attached to mind or to matter. There have been 
chemical, mechanical and biological conceptions which 
have ignored mind as a separate entity and have dogmati- 
cally affirmed it to be the product of 

Different philosophi- ma tter only.* There have been theories 
cal speculations com- . . , 

pared. on the other extreme, which have 

dispensed with matter altogether and 
have boldly affirmed that matter as such has no reality at 
all, and that thought is the only thing which can be 
called Real in the highest sense. All matter as such is 
non-Being or Maya or Avidya. There have been Nihilists 
like the unyavadi Buddhists who have gone so far as to 
assert that none of them exists, neither the matter nor the 
mind. There have been some who asserted that matter 
was only thought externalized, some who regarded the 
principle of matter as the Unknowable Thing-in-itself, 
some who regarded them as separate independent entities 
held within a higher reality called God or as two of his 
attributes only, and some who regarded their difference 
as being only one of grades of intelligence, one merging 
slowly and imperceptibly into the other and held together 
in concord with each other by pre-established harmony. 

Underlying the metaphysics of Patanjali also, we 
find an acute analysis of matter and thought, He 
regarded matter on one hand, mind, the senses, and Ego 

* See Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism. 


on the other, to be nothing more than two different kinds 

of modifications of one primal cause, 
Patanjali's view. 

the rraknti. -But he distinguished 
from them a self-intelligent principle which he called 
Purusha or the Spirit. By the highest generalisation 
possible he discovered that what we call matter consisted 
only of three piimal qualities or rather substantive entities, 
which he called the Sattwa or the intelligence-stuff, Rajas 
or energy and Tamas the factor of obstruction or mass 
or Inertia. It is indeed extremely difficult to make a true 
conception of the nature of these three qualities or Gunas 
as he called them, when we consider that these are the 
only three elements which are regarded as forming the 
composition of all phenomena, mental or physical. In 
order to comprehend them rightly it will be necessary to 

grasp thoroughly the exact relation 
Difficulties of the con- between the mental and the physical. 

ception of the Gunas . 

which are the under- What are the real points or agree- 

Jying reality of all ment between the two ? How can the 
things, Mental and 

Physical- same elements be said to behave in 

one case as the conceiver and in the 
other case as the conceived. Thus Vachaspati says : 

The qualities (Gunas) appear as possessing two forms, 
viz., the determiner or the perceiver and the perceived or the 
determined. In the aspect as the determined or the perceived, 
the Gunas evolve themselves as the five infra-atomic 
potentials, the five gross elements and their compounds. 
In the aspect as the perceiver or determiner, they form 
the modifications as the Eo and the senses. 

Quotation from 

Vachaspati's Tattvavaisaradi on the VySsa BhSshya, III. 47. 


It is interesting to notice here the two words used 

by Vachaspati, in characterising the twofold aspect 

of the Gunas, viz., Wrorawa, their nature as the deter- 

miner or the perceiver and szraftal^rara, 

Mind and matter are their nature as being determined or 
the two aspects of the . ,. , 

same substance. perceived. The elements which com- 

pose the phenomena of the objects 
of perception are the same as those which form the 
phenomena of the perceiving ; their only distinction is 
that one is determined and the other is the determiner. 
Aristotle, Leibnitz, Hegel all of them asserted in their own 
ways that there was no intrinsic difference between the 
so-called mental and the physical. 

With Aristotle, " as possibility of Form, Matter is reason 
in process of becoming, the antithesis between idea and the 

world of sense is at least in principle, 
^Aristotle and Patan- or potentially surmounted, so far as 

it is one single being, but only on 
different stages that exhibits itself in both, in matter as 
well as in form." The theory of causation as explained 
by him by the simile of the raw material and the 
finished article is almost the same as has been given by 
Vijfiana Bhikshu in his commentary on the system of 
Sankhya the causal action consists of the activity that 
manifests the effect (karya) in the present moment 
just as the image already existing in the stone 
is only manifested by the activity of the statuary. 

). Thus it seems that 

Aristotle's doctrine has some similarity with the Patanjala- 
Sankhya doctrine. But their difference much outweighs 
the similarity. For with Aristotle, potentiality and 
actuality are only relative terms; what is potential 
with reference to one thing is actual with reference to 


another. All things are arranged in a state of becoming 
higher and higher ; and in this way, 

Q.' li 6 i i* 

thought is also regarded as the Actual 
or the Form, and the other is called the Potential or 
Matter. But with Patanjali this is not the case. With him 
Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas are substantive entities which 
compose the reality of the mental and the physical. The 
mental and the physical represent two different orders of 
modifications, and one is not in any way the actuality of the 
other. Potentialities and actualities have place in this system 
but only in this sense that they are the absolute potentialities 
and actualities. As they conjointly form the manifold 
without, by their varying combinations as well as all the 
diverse internal functions, faculties and phenomena, they are 
in themselves the absolute potentiality of all things, mental 
and physical. Thus Vyasa in describing the nature of 
the knowable writes. The nature of the knowable is 
now described : The knowable, consisting of the objects 
of enjoyment and liberation, as the gross elements and the 
perceptive senses, is characterised by three essential traits 
illumination, energy and inertia. The Sattwa is of the 
nature of illumina'ion. Rajas is of the nature of energy. 
Inertia (Tamas) is of the nature of inactivity. The Guna 
entities with the above characteristics are capable of being 
modified by mutual influence on one another, by 
their proximity. They are evolving. They have the 
characteristics of conjunction and separation. They 
manifest forms by one lending support to the others by 
proximity. None of these loses its distinct power into 
those of the others, even though any one of them 
may exist as the principal factor of a phenomenon with 
the others as subsidiary thereto. The Gunas forming the 
three classes of substantive entities manifest themselves 
as such, by their similar kinds of power. When any one 


of them plays the roll of the principal factor of any 
phenomenon, the others also show their presence in 
close contact. Their existence as 'subsidiary energies of 
the principal factor is inferred by their distinct 
and independent functioning, even though it be as 
subsidiary qualities. fj^^^q^j^ i 

Quotation from Vyasa 

It may be argued that in Aristotle also we find 
that Potentiality and Actuality exist together in various 
proportions in all things, but the fundamental distinction 
which must be noted here, is this, that in Aristotle, 
Form only exists in Matter as its end or goal towards 
which it is striving. And the manifold nature of the 
universe only shows the different stages of matter and 
form as being overcome by each other. But in the three 
Gunas, none of them can be held as the goal of the others. 
All of them are ecpually important and the very various 
nature of the manifold, represents only the different 
combinations of these Gunas as substantive entities. 
In any combination, one of the Gunas may be more 
predominant than the others, but the other Gunas 
are also present there and do their functions in their 
own way. No one of them is more important than 
the other, but they serve conjointly one common 
purpose, ri:., the experiences and the liberation of the 
Purusha or spirit. They are always uniting, separating 
and re-uniting again and there is neither beginning nor 
end of this 

See Vyasa Bhashya on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, II. 18. 


They have no purpose of theirs to serve, but they all 
are always evolving " ever from a relatively less differen- 
tiated, less determinate, less coherent whole, to a relatively 
more differentiated, more determinate, more, coherent 
whole " for the experiences and the liberation of the 
Purusha, the Spirit. When in a state of equilibrium they 
cannot serve the purpose of the Purusha ; so, that state of 
the Gunas is not for the sake of the 
ik is its w independent 

evolutionary state de- eternal state. All the other three 

pendeut on the 

Purusha. stages or evolution, viz., the HF (sign), 

(unspecialised) and foSta (specia- 

lised) have been caused for the sake of the Purusha. Thus 
Vyasa writes : The objects of the Purusha are no cause of 
the noumeual states. That is to say, the fulfilment of the 
objects of the Purusha is not the cause which brings about 
the manifestation of the noumenal state in the beginning. 
The fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha is not therefore 
the reason of the existence of that ultimate cause. For the 
reason that it is not brought into existence by the need of the 
fulfilment of the Purusha's objects it is said to be eternal. 
As to the three specialised states, the fulfilment of the objects 
of the Purusha becomes the cause of their manifestation in 
the beginning. The fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha 
is not therefore the reason of the existence of the cause. 
For the reason that it is not brought into existence by the 
Purusha's objects it is said to be eternal. As to the three 
specialised states, the f ulfilment'of the objects of the Purusha 
becomes the cause of their manifestation in the beginning. 
And because the objects of the Purusha become the 
cause of .their manifestation they are said to be 
non-eternal. ^foinwmuT *r gwsff^g:, *r ^farra^Iiq 
f vrafa ?fa i *r rren: s^nstcn ^JTW *nrf?r 


Vachaspati again says : The fulfilment of the objects 
of the Purusha could be said to be the cause of the 
noumenal state, if that state could bring about the 
fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha such as the 
enjoyment of sound, etc., or manifest the discrimination 
of the distinction between true self and other phenomena. 
If however it did that, it could not be a state of 
equilibrium. wrfflTW^TO^1fWW II fWfWWnWtRt *T fWl^' 
farwT ?if^tf* i *=n*fT^?n n?i it This state is called the 
Prakriti, which may in some sense be 
Prakriti loosely compared with the pure Being 

of Hegel. For it is like that, the 
Compared with the 

Being of Hegel. beginning, the simple, indeterminate, 

unmediated and undetermined. It does 
neither exist nor does not exist, but is the principium of 
almost all existence. Thus Vyasa describes it as the state 
which neither is nor is not, that in which it exists and 
yet does not ; that in which there is no non-existence ; the 
uumanifested, the noumenon (lit. without any manifested 
indication), the background of all. (fr^Ttre^' fal'B^m f*TT<T, 
^sjnw ^ffa?' wf i I ) Vachaspati explains it as follows: 
Existence consists in possessing the capacity of effecting 
the fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha. Non- 
existence means a mere imaginary trifle (e.g., the horn of a 
horse). It is described as being beyond both these states 
of existence and non-existence. The state of the equipoise 
of the three gunas of Intelligence-stuff, Inertia and 

* See Vyasa Bhashya on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, II. 19. 
t Vfichaspati Misra's Tattavaisaradi commentary on Vyasa Bhashya 
on Patanjali's Sutras, II. 19. 
t Vyasu Bhashya, II. 19. 


Energy, is nowhere of use in fulfilling the objects 
of the Purusha. It therefore does not exist as such. 
On the other hand, it does not admit of being rejected as 
non-existent like an imaginary lotus of the sky. It is 
therefore not non-existent. But even allowing the force 
of the above arguments about the want of phenomenal 
existence of Prakriti on the ground that it cannot serve the 
objects of the Purusha, the question comes that the principles 
of Mahat, etc., exist in the state of the unmanifested 
also, because nothing that exists can be destroyed ; and if 
it is destroyed, it cannot be born again, because nothing 
that does not exist can be born ; it follows therefore that 
since the principles of Mahat, etc., exist in the state of 
the unmanifested, that state can also affect the fulfilment 
of the objects of the Purusha. How then can it be 
said that the unmanifested is not possessed of existence ? 
For this reason, he describes it as that in which it exists 
and does not exist. This means that the cause exists in 
that state in a potential form but not in the form of the 
effect. Although the effect exists in the cause as mere 
potential power, yet it is incapable of performing the 
function of fulfilling the objects of the Purusha ; it is 
therefore said to be non-existent as such. Further he says 
that this cause is not such, that its effect is of the 
nature of hare's horn. It is beyond the state of non- 
existence, that is of the existence of the effect as mere 
nothing. If it were like that then it would be like the 


lotus of the sky and no effect would follow from that 

ffcf T ^ *nfo 

1 . ff?f 


Thus we see that if it is looked at from this narrow 
point of view of similarity, it may be compared with the 
pure Being of Hegel, a state of implicitude which is at 
the root of all determinate and concrete existence. In 
this state, the different Gunas only annul themselves and 
no change takes place, though it must be acknowledged 
that the state of equipoise is also one of tension and 
action, which however being perfectly balanced does not 
produce any change. This is what is meant by w&l qfr'OT* 
(Evolution of similars). Had this Prakriti been the only one 
principle, it is clear that it could be compared to the absolute 
of Hegel or as pure Being. Prakriti as the equilibrium of 
the three Gunas is the absolute ground of all the mental and 
phenomenal modifications the pure potentiality. 

If we ignore Purusha of the system then we can in 
some sense compare it with the God 

Compared with o f Spinoza, " excludent of all determi- 
Spinoxa'i Nafcura . 

Naturans. nation " the one which is prior to 

all its modifications." It may be 
conceived to possess the two attributes of thought and 
matter, both of which must be conceived through itself 
and as having always existed simultaneously in it. It can 
be described in the words of Plato as " The mother and 
receptacle of all visible things ; we do not call it earth nor 
air, nor fire, nor water nor any thing produced from them, 
or from which these are produced. It is an invisible and 
formless thing, the recipient of everything, participating in 
a certain way of the unintelligible but in a way very difficult 
to seize"; or like the matter of Aristotle, "conceived 

* VSchaspati's commentary on Patanjali'a Sutras, II. 19. 


in its abstraction from Form as without predicate, 
determination, distinction, as that which is the permanent 
subject in|all becoming and assumes the most contradictory 
forms ; what however in its own being is different from 
everything, and has in itself no definiteness whatever." 

In later Indian thinkers there had been a tendency to 
make a compromise between the Vedanta and Sankhya 
doctrines and to identify (Prakriti) u^fff with the (Avidya) 
^ftsiT of the Vedautists. Thus Lokacharyya writes : it is 
called Prakriti since it is the source of all change, it is called 
'ffoiT (Avidya) since it is opposed to knowledge, it is called 
Maya since it is the cause of diversified 

Prakriti, Avidya and 

, ,. ,- 

Maya. creation. flgi 

i* But 

this is distinctly opposed in the Bhashya which defines 
(Avidya) as frsnfaqftfi ^nrr^T "fasn, i.e., Avidya is that 
another knowledge which is opposed to the right knowledge. 
In some of the Upanishads, Swetaswatara for example, we 
find that *n?n (Maya) and v&fo (Prakriti) are identified 
and the great god is said to preside over it (flwr g irafti 
fa<gm *nfsR g T^T). There is a description also in the 
Rigveda X. 92, where it is said that (TT*Kift?j f ^^T^t^T 
?T^Tff) in the beginning there was neither the ' Is " nor 
the " Is not," which reminds one of the description of 
Prakriti (wfa) as fiT:^r?Tre^ (that in which there is 
no existence or non-existence). In the Manu also we find 
^uwra^ *rfw^ R^HffR ^a:. In this way it may be 
shown from Geeta and other Sanskrit texts that an 
undifferentiated, unindividuated cosmic matter as the 
first principle in the beginning was often thought of and 
discussed from the earliest times. Later on this idea was 
utilised with slight modifications by the different schools 

* Tattvatraya, page 48 (Chovrkhamba edition), Benares. 


of Vedantists, the Sankhyists and those who sought to 
make a reconciliation between them under the different 
names of Prakriti, Avidya and Maya. What Avidya 
really means according to the Patanjala system we shall 
see later on ; but here we see that whatever it might mean 
it does not mean Prakriti according to the Patanjala 
system. Vyasa Bhashya makes mention of Maya also in 
a couplet from Shashtitantrasastra 

^ HTH 

The real appearance of the Gunas does not come within 
the line of our vision. That, however, which comes within the 
line of vision is but paltry delusion and Vachaspati explains it 
as follows : Prakriti is like the Maya but it is not Maya. 
It is trifling (ig^f^f) in the sense that it is changing. 
Just as Maya immediately changes, so the transformations 
of Prakriti are every moment appearing and vanishing 
and thus suffering constant changes. Prakriti is an 
eternal reality and thus different from Maya 

?raif% ^m\ ^m^^ro^n vrafa i 

This explanation of Mi-ra makes it clear that the word 
Maya is used here only in the sense of illusion, and that 
there is no allusion to the celebrated Maya of the Vedantists ; 
and Misra says clearly that Prakriti can in no sense be 
called Maya, since it is real. (Cf. Bhikshu here.) 

A more definite notion of Prakriti we shall get as 
Connection with we advan ?e further into the details 

Pnrusha and the diffi- o f the later transformations of the 
culty of its conception 

Prakriti in connection with the 

Purusha. The most difficult point is to understand the 
nature of its connection with the Purusha. Prakriti is a 
material, non-intelligent, independent principle and the souls 


or spirits are isolated, neutral, intelligent and inactive. Then 
how can the one come into connection with the other ? 

In most systems of Philosophy the same difficulty has 
arisen and has given the same troubles to comprehend it 

The difficulty is ri * h %- Plato fi S hts the difficulty of 

almost unavoidable ; solving the unification of the idea and 
since it is seen to exist 

in other western sys- the non-being and attempts to offer 

his participation theory ; even in 
Aristotle's attempt to avoid the difficulty by his theory of 
form and matter, we are not fully satisfied though he has 
shown much ingenuity and subtlety of thought in devising 
the " Expedient in the single conception of development." 

The universe is but a gradation between the two extremes 
of potentiality and actuality, matter and form. But all 
students of Aristotle know that it is very difficult to under- 
stand the true relation between form and matter, and the 
particular nature of their interaction with each other, and 
it has created a great divergence of opinion among his 
commentators. It was probably to avoid this difficulty that 
the dualistic appearance of the philosophy of Descartes had 
to be reconstructed in the pantheism of Spinoza. Again 
we find also how Kant failed to bring about the relation 
between noumenon and phenomenon, and created two 
worlds absolutely unrelated with each other. He tried to 
make up the schism that he effected in his Critique of Pure 
Reason by his Critique of Practical Reason, and again sup- 
plemented it by his Critique of Judgment and met with only 
dubious success. 

In India also this question has always been a little puzzl- 
ing and before trying to explain the 

It is seen in other TJ-J. i j. p Tin/, 

theories Indian as well. ^njala point of View, I shall first 

give some of the other expedients devis- 
ed for the purpose, by the different schools of Adwaita 


Reflection theory 



Maya is without beginning, unspeakable, mother 
of gross matter, which comes in connection with in- 
telligence, so that by its reflection in the former we have 
Iswara. The illustrations that are given to explain it both 
in Siddhantalesa* and in Adwaita Brahmasiddhi are only 
cases of physical reflection, viz., the reflection of the Sun 
in water, or of the sky in water. 

II. *nH6^T? : Limitation theory 

The all-pervading intelligence must necessarily be 
limited by mind, etc., so of necessity it follows that " the 
soul " is its limitation. They illustrate their theory by 
giving those common examples in which the Akasa (*)TOTO) 
though unbounded in itself is often spoken of as belonging 
to a jug or limited by the jug and as such appeared to fit 
itself to the shape and form of the jug and which is thus 
called ^nnqf'*'* *H*WI, i.e., space as within the jug. 

Then we have a third school of Vedantists who seek to 
explain it in another way : Whereas others hold that 
soul is neither a reflection uor a limitation but just as the 
son of Kunti was known as the son of Badha, so the 
pure Brahman by his Nescience is known as the Jiva and 
just as the prince who was brought up in the family of a 
low caste, it is the pure Brahman who by its own Nescience 
undergoes birth and death and by its own Nescience is 
again released. 

ft? 5 *} ^^i 

T irsf 3 

* Siddhantalesa (Jiveswara Nirupana). 


The Sankhya Sutra also avails of the. same story in IV, 
I TraHTRfrrftq^anrT which Yijfiana 

Sankhya explication rn-i i i <> n 

of the connection. Bhikshu explains as follows : A 

certain king's son in consequence 

of his being born under the Star Ganda having been 
expelled from his city and reared by a certain forester 
remains under the idea : " I am a forester." Having 
learnt that he is alive, a certain minister informs him. 
" Thou art not a forester, thou art a king's son." As 
he, immediately having abandoned the idea of his being 
an outcast, betakes himself to his true royal state, 
saying, " I am a king " so too the soul realises its 
purity in consequence of the instruction of some kind 
person, to the effect ' Thou, who didst originate from 
the first soul, which manifests itself merely as Pure 
Thought, art a portion thereof/' 


?f, etc. - 
In another place there are two Sutras : fa:^lP fq 

(2) ^qresf^wtf?;^ ^twr: fw^ ^rfwn^: (1) Though 
it be unassociated still there is a tinging through Non- 
discrimination. (2) As in the case of the Hibiscus and 
the crystal there is not a tinge but a fancy. Now it 
will be seen that all these theories only show that the 
transcendent nature of the union of the principle of 
pure intelligence is very difficult to comprehend. Neither 
the reflection nor the limitation theory can clear the situa- 
tion from vagueness and incomprehensibility which is 
rather increased by their physical illustrations for the 
Chit or pure intelligence cannot undergo reflection like a 
physical thing and neither can it be obstructed nor limited 


bv it. The reflection theory that is pointed at by the 
Sankhya-Sutra arcrefife^ftw ^rm: ftf=?i ifiwm: is not 
an adequate explanation. For here the reflection produces 
onlv a seeming redness of the colourless crystal which was 
not the thing with the Vedantists of the reflection school. 
But here though the metaphor is more suitable to expres? 
the relation of Purusha with the Prakriti, the exact 
nature of the relation is more lost sight of than com- 
prehended. Let us now see how Patanjali and Vyasa 
seek to explain it. 

Let me quote a few Sutras of Patanjali and some of 
the most important extracts from the Bhashya and try to 
get the correct view as much as possible : 

(1) ^JT^sHajifJlt* 1*^3 ^farai II. 6. 

(2j -$e\ ^ftwiav.wtfa flsrer^w. IT. 20. 

(3) ti^er xjei ?s?f ^n^n II. 21. 

(4) 3J?n$' vjfh sre^uR^' cT^n-mmii^TfT 11.22. 

'$w. II. 23. 

(6) q<mn?r ^'^iwrft 1^ <TI^: ^^' III. 25. 

(7) qreijvufl: ^fi^M l^^m III. 55. 

(8) f^TR^^wrar'^i^iKiqTil ^if%^^T^ IV. 22. 


HI- 34. 

(1) The Ego-Sense is the illusory appearance of iden- 
tity of the subject and the object operating in the field of 

(2) The self as seer is absolute in its transcendent 
purity ; yet it is capable of reperception in experience. 

(3) For his sake only is the being of the knowable. 

(4) For the emancipated person the world phenomena 
cease to exist, yet they are not annihilated since thej r form 
a common field of experience for other individuals. 


(5) The cause of the realisation of the natures of the 
subject factor and the Purusha in consciouness is contact. 

(6) When the world of objects withdraws (before 
emancipation) there is necessarily no conjunction ; this is 
the destruction of world-experience, the oneness of the 
self in isolation. 

(7) This state of oneness arises out of the equality of 
the Purusha and Buddhi in purity. 

(8) Personal consciousness arises when the Purusha 
though in its nature unchangeable is cast into the mould 
of Buddhi. 

(0) Objects exist only for the Purusha : experience thus 
consists in the non-differentiation of these two which in 
their natures are absolutely distinct ; the knowledge of self 
arises out of concentration on its nature. 

Thus in II. 6 Drik (l^r) or Purnsha the seer is spoken 
of as Sakti or power as much as the Prakriti itself and we 
see that their identity is a seeming one. Vyasa in his 
Bhashya explains miWrfl (unity of nature or identity) 
as ^fovnronFt w, by " as if there is no difference." 
And Panchasikha also writes, lf%rr. ^K H^l Tranrsftel 
PraTfefirfw**iMiii li^nTf rrqT<w<*f^ ^TttT i Not knowing the 
Purusha beyond the Buddhi to be different therefrom, 
in nature, character and knowledge, etc., a man has the 
notion of self in the Buddhi through delusion. 

Thus we see that when they are known to be separated, 
the real nature of the Purusha is realised. This seeming 
identity is again described as Tfsj?njW, 

The Purusha thus we see cognises the phenomena of 
consciousness after they have been formed and though its 
nature is different from that yet it appears to be the same 
as that. Vyasa in explaining this Sutra says that the 


Purusha is neither quite similar to the Buddhi nor 
altogether different from it. For the Buddhi is always 
changeful according to the change of the objects that are 
offered to it ; so that according as it knows objects or 
does not, it may be said to be changeful ; but the Purusha 
is not such, as it always appears as the self, being reflected 
through the Buddhi, and is thus connected with the 
phenomenal form of knowledge. The notion of self that 
appears connected with all our mental phenomena and 
which always illumines them is only due to this reflection 
of the Purusha in the Buddhi. All phenomenal knowledge 
which has the form of the object can only be transformed 
into conscious knowledge as " I know this " only when it 
becomes connected with the ego. Now the ego which 
illumines all our knowledge is only a product of the trans- 
cendent reflection of the Purusha into the Buddhi. So 
the Purusha may in a way be said to see again that 
which was perceived by the Buddhi and thus to impart 
consciousness by transferring its illumination into the 
Buddhi as the ego. The Buddhi suffers ohan^inar modi- 

^ O O 

fications according to the furm of the object of cognition 
and thus a state of conscious cognition in the shape 
of " I know it" results when the Buddhi havino- 


assumed the shape of an object it becomes connected with 
the constant factor Purusha, through the transcendent 
reflection or identification of the Purusha in the Buddhi 
as the ego. This is what is meant by T?RnTT<jqs?j (repercep- 
tion of the Buddhi transformations by Purusha and thereby 
intelligising the Buddhi which has assumed the shape of 
any object of consciousness). Even when the Buddhi is 
without auy objective form it is being always seen by the 
Purusha. The exact nature of this reflection is indeed 
very hard to comprehend ; no physical illustrations can 
really serve to make it clear. And we see that neither 


the Bhashya nor the Sutras offer any such illustrations as 
Sankhya did. But the Bhashya proceeds to show the points 
in which the Buddhi may be said to differ from the Purusha, 
and those in which it disagrees with it. So that though 
we cannot express it anyhow, wo may at least make some 
advance towards conceiving the situation. 

Thus the Bhashya says that the main difference between 
the Buddhi and the Purusha is this that the Buddhi is 

constuntly undergoing modifications 
Farther explanations ,. .. .. , . 

of the distinctness of according as it grasps its objects one 

the nature of Purusha b f tlie grasp i n g o f an 

and Prakriti. 

object, the act of having a percept, is 

nothing but its own undergoing of different modifications 
and thus since an object sometimes comes within the 
grasp of the Buddhi and again disappears as a Sanskara 
(potency) and again comes into the field of the under- 
standing as Smriti (memory), we see that it is qfwfa or 
changing. But the Purusha is the constant seer of the 
Buddhi, whether it has an object as in ordinary forms 
of phenomenal knowledge or when it has no object 
as in a state of (Nirodlia or suspension) fafte the 
Purusha remains the constant seer of the Buddhi 
and as a result of this seeiug we never lose our notion 
of self. Thus the Purusha is unchanging. It is the 
light which remains unchanged amidst all the chang- 
ing modifications of the Buddhi, so that we cannot distin- 
guish the Purusha separately from the Buddhi ( 
13). This is what is meant by saying ^: JTf<TO'%^ 
the Purusha reflects or turns into its own light the 
concepts of the Buddhi and thus is said to know it. Thus 
its knowing is manifested in our consciousness as the 
ever-persistent notion of the self or ego which is ever so 
constant a factor in all the phenomena of consciousness. 
Thus the Purusha appears always in our consciousness as 


the knowing agent. Really speaking however the Purusha 
only sees himself, he is not in any way in touch with the 
Butldhi. It is absolutely free from all bondage, absolutely 
unconnected with the Prakriti. But from the side of 
appearance it only seems that he is the intelligent seer 
imparting consciousness to our conscious-like conception 
though in reality he remains the seer of himself all the 
while. The difference between the Purusha and the Pra- 
kriti will be clear in as much as we see that the Purusha 
is altogether independent, existing in and for himself, free 
from any bondage whatsoever ; but the Buddhi is on the 
other hand for the Purusha, for his enjoyment and release. 
That which exists in and for itself, must ever be the self- 
same, unchangeable entity, suffering no transformations 
or modifications, for it has no other end for which it will 
be liable to any change. It is the self-centred, self-satis- 
fied, light, which has never to seek any other end^and has 
never to go out of itself. But Prakriti is not such, it is 
always undergoing endless complex modifications and as 
such does not exist for itself but for the Purusha, and as 
such is dependent on it. The Buddhi is unconscious, while 
the Purusha is the pure light of intelligence, for the three 
Gunas are all non-intelligent, and Buddhi is nothing but 
a modification of these three Gunas which are all non- 

But looked at from another point of view the Prakriti 
is not altogether different from the Purusha ; for had it 
been so how could the Purusha which is absolutely pure 
become subject to reperception T?a??n3W ? Thus the Bhashya 
writes *n^J <rf% f^rr ?fa i TTSKI' 

nf<m'*w> frefa^trafa, wre 


Well then let it be dissimilar. To meet this he says i 
He is not quite dissimilar. Why? Even though pure, he 
sees the ideas after they have come into the mind. Tn as 
much as the Purusha cognises the ideas in the form of 
Buddhi he appears by the act of cognition to be as it were 
the very self of the Buddhi although in reality he is not so. 
As it has been said : the power of the enjoyer, Purusha 
( ^fsrfiff ) is certainly unchangeable and it does not run 
after every object. In connection with a changeful object 
it appears forever as if it were being transferred to every 
object and as if it were assimilating its modifications. And 
when the modifications of the Buddhi assume the form of 
consciousness by which it is coloured, they imitate it and look 
as if they were manifestations of consciousness unqualified 
by the modifications of the now intelligent Buddhi. 

All our states of consciousness are analysed into two 
parts a permanent part and a changing part. The chaug- . 

ing part is the form of our conscious- 
Analysis of conscious- i u .. i 
ness to find the place ness whi ch w constantly varying 

of permanent intelli- according to the constant change of 

its contents. The permanent part is 

that pure light of intelligence by virtue of which we have 
the notion of self reflected in our consciousness. Now as 
this notion of self persists through all the varying 
change of our consciousness it is inferred that the 
light which thus shines in our consciousness is un- 


changeable. Our Buddhi is constantly suffering a 
thousand modifications, but the notion of self is the only 
thing permanent amidst all this change. It is this notion 
of self that imparts consciousness to the material parts of 
our knowledge. All our concepts originated from the 
percepts which we had of the external material objects. 
So the forms of our concepts which could exactly represent 
these material objects clearly in their own terms must 


be made of the very self-same stuff. But with the reflec- 
tion of the Furusha, the soul, there comes within the 
content of our consciousness, the notion of self which 
spiritualises as it were all our concepts and makes them 
conscious and intelligent. So this seeming identity of the 
Puvusha and the Buddhi, by which the Purusha may be 
spoken of as the seer of the concept appears to the self 
which is manifested in the consciousness by virtue of the 
seeming reflection. For this is that self, or personality 
which remains unchanged all through our consciousness. 
Thus our phenomenal intelligent self is partially a material 
reality arising out of the seeming interaction of the spirit 
and the Buddhi. This interaction is the only way by which 
matter releases the spirit from its seeming bondage. 

But a question arises how is it that there can even be 

a seeming reflection of the Purusha 

Explanation of the [ n ^ e Buddhi which is altogether 

seeming reflection. . 

non-mtelho-ent ? How is it possible 
for the Buddhi to catch a glimpse of the Purusha which 
illuminates all its concepts into consciousness, which 
justifies the expression *r^qsg which means that it perceives 
by imitation (^f^nr^l TOfa *m 1p?s?0 ? How can the 
Purusha which is altogether formless allow any reflection of 
itself to imitate the form of Buddhi, by virtue of which it 
appears as the self the supreme possessor and knower of 
all our mental conceptions ? There must be at least some 
resemblance between the Buddhi and the Purusha to 
justify in some sense this seeming reflection. And we find 
that the last Sutra of the Vibhutipada says: ^Tergwft: 
*ffreTr W3*3j' which means that when the q\3 or Buddhi 
becomes as pure as Purusha, Kaivalya or oneness is attained. 
This shows that the pure nature of Sattwa has a great 
resemblance with the pure nature of the Purusha. So much 
so that the last stage preceding the state of Kaivalya is 


the same almost as the state of Kaivalya in which the 
Purusha is in himself and there is no Buddhi to reflect it. In 
this state we see that the Buddhi can be so pure that it can 
exactly reflect the nature of Purusha as he is in himself. 
This is what is meant by saying ^Emgwft: ^Ff3W 4f*rai' i 
This state in which the Buddhi becomes as pure as the 
Purusha, and reflects it in its purity does not materially 
differ from the state of Kaibalya, in which the Purusha is 
in himself the only difference being that Buddhi, when it 
becomes so pure, becomes gradually lost in the Prakriti 
and cannot again serve to bind the Purusha. 

I cannot restrain here the temptation of giving a 
very beautiful illustration from the 

Further explanation fihashyakar to explain the way in 
by analogy. 

which Chitta serves the purposes of 

the Purusha. f^^T^T^Rfa^^fsfaw^WTfr ?a?WT *j ^f?f 
tj*IW ^rfiffi: I. 4. which is explained in Yoga Vartika as 
follows : 

r: *?' *rafcf t*rewiTff, i.e., just as a magnet 
draws, though it remains unmoved itself, iron towards it, 
so towards the Purusha the Buddhi modifications become 
drawn and they thereby become visible to the Purusha and 
serve his purpose. 

To summarise now, we have seen that something like 

a unity takes place between the Bud- 

dhi and the Purusha, i.e., there is a 

seeming reflection of the Purusha in the Buddhi, simnl- 

~ ' 

taneously with its being determined conceptually, as a 
result whereof this reflection of the Pnrusha in the Buddhi 
which is known as the self, becomes united with these 
conceptual determinations of the Buddhi and the former is 
said to be the perceiver of all these determinations. Our 
conscious personality or self is thus the seeming unity of 
the knowable in the Buddhi in the shape of conceptual or 


judgmental representations with the reflections of the 
Purusha in the Buddhi. Thus in the single act of cog- 
nition we have the notion of our own personality and the 
particular conceptual or perceptual representation with 
which this ego identifies itself. The true seer, the pure 
intellisrence, the free, the eternal remains all the while 

~ ' * 

beyond any touch of sully or impurity from the Buddhi, 
though it must be remembered that it is its own seeming 
reflection in Buddhi that appears as the ego, the cogniser 
of all our states, pleasures and sorrows of mind and one 
who is the apperceiver of this unity of the seeming reflec- 
tion of the Purusha and the determinations of the Buddhi. 
lu all our conscious states there is such a synthetic unity 
between the determinations of our Buddhi and the self, 
that they cannot be distinguished one from the other 
a fact which is exemplified in all our cognitions which are 
the union of the knower and the known. The nature of 
this reflection is a transcendent one and can never be 
explained by any physical illustration. Purusha is alto- 
gether different from the Buddhi in as much as it is the 
pure intelligence and absolutely free, while the latter is 
non-intelligont and dependent on the Purusha's enjoyment 
and release which are its sole purposes for movement. 
But there is some similarity between the two, for how 
could the Buddhi otherwise catch a seeming glimpse of 
Him ? It is also seen when we find that the pure Buddhi 
can adapt itself to the pure form of the Purusha which 
is almost identical with the state of Kaivalya. 

We have discussed the nature of the Purusha and 

The plurality of the its general relations with the Buddhi. 
Purushas and the XT -L 'L\. 

views of Sankhya JNow jt rem ams with US to show a 

Karika about the na . f ew more points about them. The 

ture of the Pnrushn 

examined. chief point in which the Purusha of 

the Sankhya Patanjala differs from the similar spiritual 


principles of other systems of philosophy is, that it 
regards its Purusha rot as one but as many. Let us 
try to discuss this point in connection with the 
arguments of the Sankhya Patanjala" doctrine in 
favour of a separate principle of Purusha. Thus 
the Karika sas : 

1 *? ^ i* " Because an assemblage of 
things is for the sake of another; because the op- 
posite of the three modes and the rest (their modi- 
fications) must exist; because there must be a 
superintending power ; because there must be a nature 
that enjoys and because of (the existence of) active 
exertion for the sake of abstraction or isolation (from 
material contact) ; therefore the soul exists." The first 
is an argument from design or teleology by which it is 
inferred that there must be some other simple entity for 
which these complex collocations of things are intended. 
Thus Gaudapada says : " In like manner as a bed, 
which is an assemblage of bedding props, cotton, coverlet 
and pillows is for another's use, not for its own and its 
several component parts render no mutual service ; thence 
it is concluded that there is a man who sleeps upon the 
bed and for whose sake it was made. So this world, 
which is an assemblage of the five elements, is for 
another's use ; or there is a soul, for whose enjoyment 
this enjoyable body consisting of intellect and the rest 
has been produced. 

The second argument is that all the knowable has 
three elements involved in it, first ; the element of Sattwa, 
by which we have the intelligence-staff causing all mani- 
festations, second, the element of Rajas or energy whieh 
is always causing transformations and the third is the 

* Karika 17. 


Tamas element which is the mass which serves the 
potentiality for the Rajas to actualise. Now such a Pra- 
kriti composed of these three elements cannot be a seer 
itself. For the seer must be always the same unchange- 
able, aetionless entity the ever present constant factor in 
all stages of our consciousness. 

Third argument. There must be a supreme background 
of pure consciousness, standing on which all our experience 
may be co-ordinated and expressed. This background 
is the pure aetionless Purusha by a reflection from 
which all our mental states become conscious. Davies 
however explains it a little differently in accordance 
with a simile in the Tattwa Kaumudi ^qi T*nfe ?F3lf<<fa'. 
and says : -"The idea of Kapila seems to be that the 
power of self-control cannot be predicated of matter which 
must be directed or controlled for the accomplishment of 
any purpose, and this controlling power must be something 
external to matter and diverse from it. The soul how- 
ever never acts. It only seems to act ; and it is difficult 
to reconcile this part of the system with that which gives 
to the soul a controlling force. If the soul is a chario- 
teer it must be an active force." But Davies here com- 
mits the mistake of carrying the simile too far. The 
comparison of the charioteer and the chariot holds good 
only to the extent that the chariot can take a particular 
course only when there is a particular purpose 
of the charioteer to perform. The motion of the 
chariot is fulfilled only when it is connected with the 
living person of the charioteer, whose purpose it has 
to fulfil. 

Fourth argument. Since Prakriti is non-intelligent 
there must be one who enjoys the pains and pleasures 
in her. Really speaking the emotional and conceptual 
determinations of these feelings are roused into 


consciousness by the seeming reflection of the light of 

Fifth argument. Because there is tendency in all 
persons to run towards the oneness of the Purusha, which 
is to be achieved by liberation ; there must be one for 
whose sake the modifications of the Buddhi are gradually 
withheld and a reverse process set up by which they return 
back to their original cause Prakriti and thus liberate the 
Purusha. It is on account of this reverse tendency of 
Prakriti to release the Purusha that a man feels prompted 
to achieve his liberation as the highest consummation of 
his moral ideal. 

Thus having proved the existence of the Purusha, 
the Karika proceeds to prove the plurality of the Purusha 

"From the separate allotment of birth, death and 
the organs ; from the diversity of occupations at the 
same time and also from the different conditions of the 
three modes, it is proved that there is a plurality of 
souls. " Or in other words since with the birth of one 
individual all are not born ; since with the death of one 
all do not die and since each individual has separate sense 
organs for himself and sin -e all ^beings do not work at the 
same time in the same manner and since the qualities of 
the different G-unas are possessed differently by different 
individuals, the Pnrushas are indeed many. Patanjali 
though he does not infer in this way the plurality of the 
Purushas, yet holds this view as in the Sutra guni?' 
ufws+iiiM^ ?T^*rcnwflc3Ter." " Although destroyed in relation 
to him whose objects have been achieved it is not destroy- 
ed being common to others." 

Davies in explaining the former Karika says, " There 
is, however, the difficulty that the soul is not affected by 
the three modes. How can their various modifications 


prove the individuality of souls in opposition to the 
Vedantist doctrine that all souls are only portions of the 
one, an infinitely extended monad ?" 

Really this question is the most puzzling one in 

the Sankhya doctrine. But a careful penetration into the 

principles of Sankhya Yoga would 

Examination of the bring home to us the idea that this 
plurality of the 
Purushas. ls & necessary and consistent outcome 

of the Sankhya view of a dualistic 
conception of the universe. 

For if it is said that the Purusha is one and by its 
reflection into different Buddhis we have the notion of 
different selfs, then it follows that these notions of self, 
or personality are false. For the only true being is 
the being of the one Purusha. So the knower being 
false, the known also becomes false, the knower and the 
known being vanished, everything is reduced to that which 
we can in no way conceive, viz., the Brahman. It may 
be argued that according to the Sankhya philosophy also, 
the knower is false, for the pure Purusha as such is not in 
any way connected with the Prakriti. But even then 
it must be observed that the Sankhya Yoga view does not 
hold that the knower is false but it analyses the nature 
of the ego and says that it is the seeming unity of the 
Buddhi and the Purusha, both of which are reals in the 
strictest sense of the terms. Purusha is justly called the 
knower there. It sees and simultaneously with it there is a 
modification of the Buddhi, this seeing becomes joined 
with this modification of the Buddhi and thus arises the 
ego who perceives that particular form of the modification 
of Buddhi. Purusha always remains the knower. The 
Buddhi suffers modifications and just at the same 
time the Buddhi catches a glimpse of the light of the 
Purusha, so that the Samyoga or contact of the Purusha and 


the Prakriti is at one and the same point of time in which 
there is unity of the reflection of the Purusha and the 
particular transformation of the Buddhi. 

The knower, the ego and the knowable, none of 

them are false in the Sankhya Yoga system at the stage 

preceding, the Kaivalya when the Bud- 

The Examination dhi becomes as pure as the Purusha ; 

continued. its modification, resembles the exact 

form of the Purusha and then the 

Purusha knows himself in his true nature in the 
Buddhi; after which the Buddhi vanishes. The Vedanta 
has to admit the modifications of the Maya but 
has at the same time to hold it as unreal. The Vedanti 
says that the Maya is as beginningless as the Prakriti 
and is as ^T*T (ending) as the Buddhi of the Sankhyists 
with reference to the released person. 

But according to the Vedanta Philosophy the knowledge 
of ego is only a false knowledge an illusion imposed upon the 
formless Brahman as Many. The Maya according to the 
Vedantist can neither be said to exist nor to non-exist. 
She is ^ftsfeii, .., can never be described or defined. 
Such an unknown and unknowable Maya by its reflection 
upon the Brahman causes the many of the world. But 
according to the Sankhya doctrine, the Prakriti is as much 
real as the Purusha itself. They are two irreducible 
metaphysical remainders the Prakriti and the Purusha. 
Their connection is beginningless (*RTfc ^NTtf). But this 
connection is not unreal in the Vedauta sense of the term. 
We see that according to the Vedanta system, all notions 
of ego or personality are false and they are originated 
by the illusive action of the Maya, so that ultimately 
when they vanish there are no other remainders. But 
this is not the case with Sankhya, for as the Purusha 
is the real seer, its cognitions cannot be dismissed as 


unreal, and so the Purushas or the knowers as they appear 
to us must be held as real. As the Prakriti is not the 
Maya of the Vedaotist (the nature of whose influence 
over the spiritual principle cannot be determined) we cannot 
account for the plurality of the Purushas by supposing 
that one Purusha is being reflected into many Buddhis and 
generating the many egoes. For in that case it will be 
difficult to explain the plurality of their appearances in 
the Buddhis. For if there be one spiritual principle, how 
should we account for the supposed plurality of the 
Buddhis. For to serve the supposed one Purusha we 
should rather expect to find one Buddhi and not many, 
and this will only mean that there would be only one ego, 
his enjoyment and release. Supposing for argument's 
sake that there are many Buddhis and one Purusha which 
being reflected into them is the cause of the plurality 
of selfs, then also we cannot see how the Prakriti is 
moving for the enjoyment and release of one Purusha, 
it would rather appear to be moved for the sake of the 
enjoyment and release of the reflected or unreal self. For 
the Purusha is not finally released with the release of 
any number of particular individual selfs. For it may be 
released with reference to one individual but it may remain 
bound in connection with others. So the Prakriti would not 
really be moved in this suppositional case for the sake of 
the Purusha but for the sake of the reflected selfs only. 
If we want to suppose it to take place in such a way as to 
avoid the said difficulties, then also with the release of one 
Purusha, all Purushas will have to be released. For really 
in the supposed theory there would not be many different 
Purushas, but it was the one Purusha which had appeared 
as many, so that with his release all the other so-called 
Purushas have to be released. We see that if it is the enjoy- 
ment (*fT) and salvation (TOJT) of one Purusha which 


appear as so many different series of enjoyments and 
emancipations then with his experiences all should have 
the same experiences. With his birth and death, all 
should be born or all should die at once. For really 
speaking it is the experiences of one Purusha which 
appear in all the seeming different Purushas. And in the 
other suppositions there is neither emancipation nor 
enjoyment Purusha at all. For there, it is only the illusory 
self that enjoys or releases himself. By his release no 
Purusha is really released at all. So the fundamental 
conception of Prakriti as moving for the sake of the 
enjoyment and release of the Purusha, has to be abandoned. 
So we see that from the position in which Kapila and 
Patanjali were standing, this plurality of the Purushas was 
the most consistent thing that they could think of. Any 
compromise with the Vedanta doctrine here would h?ve 
greatly changed the philosophical aspect and value of the 
Sankhya Philosophy. As the Purushas are nothing but 
pure intelligences they can as well be all pervading though 
many. But there is another objection that number is a 
conception of the phenomenal mind, how then can it be 
applied to the Purushas which are said to be many. But 
that difficulty remains unabated even though we should 
regard the Purusha as one. When we go into the domains 
of metaphysics an r l try to represent the Reality with the 
symbols of our phenomenal conceptions we have really 
to commit almost a violence to it. But this must have 
to be allowed in all our attempts to philosophise to 
express in terms of our conceptions that pure inexpressible 
free illumination which exists in and for itself beyond the 
range of any mediation by the concepts of images of our 
mind. So we see that the Sankhya was not incon- 
sistent in holding the doctrine of the plurality of the 
Purushas. Patanjali does not say anything about it, since 


he is more anxious to say about other things connected 
with the pre-supposition of the plurality of the Purusha. 
Thus he speaks of it only in one place as we have quoted 
above and says that though for a released person this 
world disappeared altogether, still it remains unchanged 
with all the other Purushas in common. Now Patanjali 
proceeds to prove the validity of an external world as 
Reality of an objec- against the idealistic Buddhists. 
tive world. Thus in Sutra 12 of the Chapter on 

Kaivalya he writes : '* The past and the future exist in 
reality, since all qualities of things manifest themselves in 
these three different ways. The future is the manifestation 
which is to be. The past is the appearance which has been 
experienced. The present is that which is in active opera- 
tion. It is this threefold substance which is the object 
of knowledge. If they did not exist in reality, there 
would not exist a knowledge thereof. How could there 
be knowledge in the absence of anything that might be 
known. For this reason, the past and present in reality exist. 
Thus the VTTO says 

So we see that the present holding within itself the 

past and the future exists in reality. For the past 

though it has been negated has really 

Present, Past and been conserve a all( J k ept j n t h e pre . 

sent and the future also though it 

has not made its appearance yet exists in potentiality 
in the present. So, as we know the past and the future 
worlds in the present, they both exist and subsist in the 
present. That which once existed cannot die and that 
which did never exist cannot come to be ( sn^rnffcf: ^VR: 
^ral fan*c ). So the past has not been destroyed 


but it has rather shifted its place and hidden itself in 
the body of the present, and the future that has not made 
its appearance exists in the present only in a potential 
form. It cannot be argued, as Vachaspati says, that 
because the past and the future are not present therefore 
they do not exist, for if the past and future do not exist 
how can there be a present also, since its existence also 
is only relative ? So all the three exist as truly as any 
one of them, and the only difference among them is the 
different way or mode of their existence. ?jf^ g W+lH<4l*4|e|l<l 

Now he proceeds to refute the arguments of those 
idealists who hold that since the external knowables do never 
exist independently of our knowledge of them, their separate 
external existence as such may be denied. Again since 
it is by knowledge alone that the external knowables can 
present themselves to us we can infer that there is 
really no knowable external reality apart from its know- 
ledge, just as we see that in dream states, knowledge can 
exist apart from the reality of any external world. 

So it may be argued that there is really no external 
reality as it appears to us. The Buddhists hold that the 
blue thing and its knowledge as blue are identical owing 
to the maxim that things which are invariably perceived 
toether are one. 

So they say that the external reality is not different 
from our idea about it. To this it 

Reality of the Ex- mav fc e replied that if as you say, 
terual world. 

the external reality is identical with 

our ideas and there is no other external reality existing 
as such outside my ideas, then why does it appear 


as existing apart, outside and independent of my 
ideas ? The idealists have no ground to deny the external 
reality and assert that it is only the creation of our 
imagination like the experiences in the state of dream. 
Even our ideas carry with them the notion that the reality 
is outside our mental experiences. All our percepts 
and notions as this and that, arise only by virtue of the 
influence of the external world ; how can they deny the 
existence of external world as such ? The objective world 
is present by its own power. How is it then that this 
objective world can be given up on the strength of mere 
logical or speculative abstraction ? 

Thus the Bhashya says : Ther<j is no object without 
the knowledge of it, but there is knowledge without any 
corresponding object as imagined in dreams ; thus the 
reality of external things is like that of dream objects 
but mere imaginations of the subject and unreal. How 
can they who say so be believed ? Since they first suppose 
that the things which present themselves to us by their 
own force do so only on account of the invalid and 
delusive imagination of the intellect and then deny the 
reality of the external world on the strength of such an 
imaginary supposition of their own. 

The external world has generated the knowledge by its 
own presentative power (^^ ^pfaraTOrasnEn fatiMUJifc) and 
thus caused itself to be represented in our ideas and we have 
no right to deny it. Commenting on the Bhashya 
quoted above, Vachaspati says that the method of 
agreement applied by the Buddhists by their 


(maxim of simultaneous perception) may have a chance 
of being contradicted by an application of the method 
of difference. The method of agreement applied by 
the idealists when put in proper form sounds like this: 
Wherever there is knowledge there is external reality 
or rather every case of knowledge agrees with or is the 
same as every case of the presence of external reality, so 
knowledge is the cause of the presence of the external 
reality, i.e., the external world depends for its reality on 
our knowledge or ideas and owes its origin or appearance 
as such to them. But Vachaspati says that this 
application of the method of agreement is not certain 
for it cannot be corroborated by the method of difference. 
For the statement that every case of absence of knowledge 
is also a case of absence of external reality cannot be 
proved, i.e., we cannot prove that the external reality does 
not exist when we have no knowledge of it. 

Describing the nature of grossness and externality, 

the attributes of the external world, 
Continued. , , 

he says that grossness means the 

pervading of more portions of space than one, i.e., grossness 
means extension, and externality means being related to 
separate space, i.e., co-existence in space (TFnt^rfw ^rtei 
ftp^^gjcn ^ crrsisr^ ) Thus we see that extension and co- 
existence in space are the two fundamental qualities of the 
gross external world. Now a percept or concept can never 
be said to possess them, for it cannot be said that an idea 
has been extending in more space than one and yet co- 
existing separately in separate places. An idea cannot 
be said to exist with other ideas in space and to extend 
in many points of space at one and the same time. 
To avoid this it cannot be said that there may be 



plurality of ideas so that some may co-exist and 
others may extend in space. For co-existence and 
extension can never be asserted ot our ideas, since 
they are very fine 'and subtle, and can be known 
only at the time of their individual operation, at which 
time however other ideas may be quite latent and unknown. 
Imagination has no power to negate their reality, for the 
sphere of imagination is quite distinct from the sphere of 
external reality, and it can never be applied to an external 
reality to negate it. Imagination is a mental function and 
as such has no touch with the reality outside, which it can 
by no means negate. 

It cannot also be said that because grossness and 
externality can abide neither in the world external nor in 
our ideas therefore it is false. For this falsehood cannot be 
thought to be separable from our ideas, for in that case 
our ideas would be as false as the false itself. The notion 
of externality and grossness pervades all our ideas 
and if they are held to be false no true thing can be 
known by our ideas and they therefore become equally 

Again knowledge and the external world because they 

happen to be presented together can never be said to be 

identical. For the method of agree- 


ment cannot by itself prove identity. 
Knowledge and the knowable external world may be 
independently co-existing things like the notions of 
existence and non-existence. Both of them are independ- 
ently co-existing naturally with each other. It is 
therefore clear enough says Vachaspati that the force of 
perception which gives us a direct knowledge of things 
can never be undervalued on the strength of mere logical 


We further see, says Patanjali, that the thing remains 
the same though the ideas and feelings of different 

men may change differently about it 
Continued. _ _ . m , 

^n:. Ihus 

A, B, C, may perceive the same identical woman and may 

feel pleasure, pain or hatred. We see that the same 

common thing generates different feelings and ideas in 

different persons ; external reality cannot be said to owe its 

origin to the idea or imagination of any one mao, but 

exists independently of any person's imagination in and 

for itself. For if it be due to the imagination of any 

particular man it is his own idea which as such eanuot 

generate the same ideas in another man. So it must be 

said that the external reality is what we perceive it 

outside and our knowledge about it is mere percepts. The 

two can never be mixed together. 

There are again others who say that just as pleasure 
and pain rise along with our ideas and must be said to 
be due to them so the objective world also must be said 
to have come into existence along with our ideas. The 
objective world therefore according to these philosophers 
has no external existence either in the past or in the 
future, but has only a momentary existence in the present 
due to our ideas about them. That much existence only 
are they ready to attribute to external objects which can be 
measured by the idea of the moment. The moment I 
have an idea of a thing, the thing rises into existence and 
may be said to exist only for that moment and as soon 
as the idea disappears the object also vanishes, for when 
it cannot be presented to me in the form of ideas it can 
be said to exist in no sense. But this argument cannot 
hold good for if really the objective reality should depend 
upon the idea of any individual man, then the objective 
reality corresponding to an idea of his ought to cease to 


exist either with the change of his idea or when_he directs 
attention to some other thing, or when he restrains 
his mind from all objects of thought. Now then if it 
thus ceases to exist, how can it again spring into existence 
when the attention of the individual is again directed 
towards it. Again all parts of an object can never be 
seen all at once. Then supposing that the front side of 
a thing is visible, then the back side which cannot be 
seen at the time must not be said to exist at all. So if 
the back side does not exist, the front side also can as 
well be said not to exist ( $ ^i irJMftlcU*r TOMATO T ^jtf life 
g^ ?fr ^wft T *z^FcT ) Therefore it must be said that 
there is an independent external reality which is the com- 
mon field of observation for all souls in general ; and 
there are also separate " Chittas " for separate indi- 
vidual souls (cisn<t ^wti: ^px*wrerc*n: ^ft^ifti ^ R^tifr 
ufa^q' H3^). And all the experiences of the Purusha 
result from the connection of this " Chitta " with the 
external world. 

Now from this view of the reality of the external 

world we are confronted with another 

Different views about question what is the ground which 


underlies the manifold appearance 
of this external world which has been proved to be real. 
What is that something which is thought as the vehicle of 
such qualities as produce in us the ideas. What is that 
self-subsistent substrate which is the basis of so many 
changes, actions and re-actions that we always meet in the 
external world. Locke called this substrate Substance 
and regarded it as unknown, but said that though it did not 
follow that it was a product of our own subjective 
thought yet it did not at the same time exist without us. 
Hume however tried to explain everything from the 
standpoint of association of ideas and denied all notions 


of substantiality. We know that Kant who was much 
influenced by Hume, agreed to the existence of some such 
unknown reality which he was pleased to call the Thing- 
in-itself, the nature of which however was absolutely 
unknowable, but whose influence was a great factor in all 
our experiences. 

But the Bhashya tries to penetrate deeper into the 
nature of this substrate or substance 

The view of the an( J says . 

The character- 

istic qualities form the very being itself of the characterised 
and it is the change of the characterised alone that is 
detailed by means of the characteristic. To understand 
thoroughly the exact significance of this statement it will 
be necessary to take a more detailed review of what has 
already been said about the Gunas. We know that all 
things mental or physical are formed by the different 
collocations of Sattwa of the nature of illumination 
(WTO), Rajas, the energy or them utative principle of the 
nature of action (fiffsn) and Tamas, the obstructive prin- 
ciple of the nature of inertia f^ffa which in their original 
and primordial state are too fine to be apprehended 
(^in*Tt wr' r' T ?l%w*i^ld). These different Gunas combine 
themselves in various proportions and form the manifold 
universe of the knowable and thus are made the objects 
of our cognition. Though combining in different pro- 
portions they become in the words of Dr. B. N. Seal 
more and more differentiated, determinate and coherent 
and thus make themselves cognisable yet they never for- 
sake their own true nature as the Gunas. So we see that 
they have thus got two natures, one in which they remain 
quite unchanged as Gunas, and another in which they 
collocate and combine themselves in various ways and 
thus appear under the veil of a multitude of qualities and 


states of the manifold knowable (s^fo? Jnfi 

Now these Gunas take three different courses of deve- 
lopment from the ego or *T5<$|* ac- 

The Gunas and their cording to which the ego or 
derivatives. . ^ , 

may be said to be im^r, ^3RI and 

Thus from the *nft^ side of the ego or ^TFSTC by a 
preponderance of ^r^ the five knowledge-giving senses, 
e.g., ear, eye, touch, taste and smell are derived. From 
the Rajas side of ego by a preponderance of Rajas the 
five active senses of speech, etc. From the Tamas side 
of ego or *JWTT by a preponderance of Tamas, the five 
Tanmatras. From which again by a preponderance of 
Tamas the atoms of five gross elements earth, water, 
fire, air and ether are derived. 

In the derivation of these it must be remembered that 
all the three Gunas are conjointly responsible. In the 
derivation of a particular product one of the Gunas may 
indeed be predominant, and thus may bestow the promi- 
nent characteristic of that product, but the other two 
Gunas are also present there and perform their functions 
equally well. Their opposition does not withhold the 
progress of evolution but rather helps it. All the three 
combine together in varying degrees of mutual prepon- 
derance and thus together help the process of evolution 
to produce a single product. Thus we see that though 
the Gunas are three, they combine to produce on the side 
of perception ; the senses ; such as those of hearing, 
sight, etc., and on the side of the knowable, the 
individual Tanmatras of Gandha, Rasa, Rupa, $parsa 
and Sabda. The Gunas composing each Tanmatra again 
agreeably combine with each other with a prepon- 
derance of Tamas to produce the atoms of each gross 
element. Thus in each combination one Guna remains as 


prominent, whereas others remain as dependent on it but 
help it indirectly in the evolution of that particular 

Now this evolution may be characterised in two 

ways : (1) Those which are modi- 

The Aviseshas and fixations or products of some other 

the Viseshas. 

cause and are themselves capable of 

originating other products like themselves ; (2) Those which 
though themselves derived, yet cannot themselves be the 
cause of the origination of other existence like themselves. 
The former may be said to be slightly (^tfaffa ) specialised 
and the latter thoroughly specialised, (frfh). 

Thus we see that from Prakriti comes Mahat, from 

Mahat comes Ahankara and from Ahankara we have seen 

above, the evolution takes three 

Tattwanfcara-Pari- different courses according to the 


preponderance of Sattwa, Rajas and 
Tamas originating the cognitive and conative senses and 
Manas, the Superintendent of them both on one side and 
the Tanmatras on the other. These Tanmatras again 
produce the five gross elements. Now when Ahankara 
produces the Tanmatras or the senses, or when the Tanma- 
tras produce the five gross elements, or when Ahankara 
itself is produced from Buddhi or Mahat, it is called 
Tatt wan tara-pari nama, i.e., the production of a different 
Tattwa or substance. 

Thus in the case of Tattwantara-parinama (as for ex- 
ample when the Tanmatras are produced from Ahankar), 
it must be carefully noticed that the state of being 
involved in the Tanmatras is altogether different from the 
state of being of Ahankara ; it is not a mere change of 
quality but a change of existence or state of being. Thus 
though the Tanmatras are derived from Ahankara the 
traces of Ahankara cannot be easily traced in them. This 


derivation is not such that the Ahankara remains princi- 
pally unchanged and there is only a change of quality of 
the Ahankara, but it is a different existence altogether 
having properties which differ widely from those of Ahankar. 
So it is called Tattwantara-parinama, i.e., evolution of 
different categories of existence. 

Now the evolution that the senses and the five gross 
elements can undergo can never be of this? nature, for they 
are Viseshas, or substances which have been too much 
specialised to allow the evolution of any other substance 
of a different grade of existence from themselves. With 
them there is an end of all emanation. So we see that 
the Aviseshas or slightly specialised ones are those which 
being themselves but emanations can yet yield other emana- 
tions from themselves. Thus we see that Mahat, Ahankar 
and the five Tanmatras are themselves emanations, as well 
as the source of other emanations. Mahat however though 
it is undoubtedly an Avisesha or slightly specialised 
emanation is called by another technical name Linga or 
sign, for from the state of Mahat, the Prakriti from which 
it must have emanated may be inferred. Prakriti how- 
ever from which no other primal state is inferrible is called 
the Alinga (^rf^i 5 ) or that which is not a sign for the exist- 
ence of any other primal and more unspecialised state. 
In one sense all the emanations can be with justice called 
the Lingas or states of existence standing as the sign by 
which the causes from which they have emanated can be 
directly inferred. Thus in this sense the five gross ele- 
ments may be called the Linga of the Tanmatras, and 
they again of the ego and that again of the Mahat, for 
the unspeciah'sed ones are inferred from their specialised 
modifications or emanations. But this technical name 
Linga is reserved for the Mahat from which the Alinga 
or Prakriti can be inferred. This Prakriti however is the 


eternal state which is not an emanation itself but the basis 
and source of all other emanations. 

The Linga and the Alinga have thus been compared 
in the Karika : 

The Linga has a cause, it is neither eternal nor universal, 
is mobile, multiform, dependent, attributive conjunct and 
subordinate. Whereas the Alinga is the reverse. The 
Alinga or Prakriti however being the cause has some 
characteristics in common with its Lingas as contra- 
distinguished from the Purushas, which is a separate 
principle altogether. 

Thus the Karika says : 

The manifested and the unmanifested Pradhaua are 
both cemposed of the three Gunas, indiscriminating, objec- 
tive, generic, unconscious and productive. Soul in these 
respects is the reverse. We have seen above that Prakriti 
is the state of the equilibrium of the Gunas, which can 
in no way be of any use to the Purusha, and is thus held 
to be eternal though all other states are held to be non- 
eternal as they are produced for the sake of the Purusha. 

The state of Prakriti is that in which the Gunas 
perfectly overpower each other and the characteristics (*&) 
and the characterised (^t) are one and the same. 

Evolution is thus nothing but the manifestation of 

change, mutation, or the energy of Rajas. The Rajas is 

the one mediating activity that breaks 

Evolution and what. up a jj cor npounds, builds up new ones 

it means. 

and initiates original modifications. 
Whenever in any particular combination the proportion 

of Sattwa, Rajas or Tarnas alters, as a condition of 
this alteration, there is the dominating activity of 
Rajas, by which the old equilibrium is destroyed and 
another equilibrium established, this in its own turn is 
again disturbed and again another equilibrium is restored. 
Now the manifestation of this latent activity of Rajas is 
what is called change or evolution. In the external world 
the time that is taken by a Tanmatra or atom to move 
from its place is identical with a unit of change. Now an 
atom will be that quantum which is smaller or finer than 
that point or limit at which it can in any way be perceived 
by the senses. They are therefore mere points without 
magnitude or dimension and the unit of time or moment 
(^ro) that is taken up in changing the position of these 
atoms or Tanmatras is identical with one unit of change or 
evolution. The change or evolution in the external world 
must therefore be measured by these units of spatial motion 
of the atoms ; i.e., an atom changing its own unit of 
space is the measure of all physical change or evolution. 
In the mental world however each unit of time corres- 

ponding to this change of an atom 
Unit of change. 

of its own unit of space is the unit 
measure of change. 

Thus Vachaspati says ?j*n 

^fra: wn: i Now this instantaneous suc- 
cession of time as discrete moments one following the 
other is the notion of the series of moments or pure and 
simple succession. Now the notion of these discrete 
moments is the real notion of time. Even the notion of 
succession is one that does not really exist but is imagined 
for the moment that is come into being just when the 
moment just before had passed ; they have never taken 
place together. Thus Vyasa says 



moments and their succession do nut belong to the category 

of actual things ; Muhurta, or moments, the day and night 

are all aggregates of mental conceptions. This time which is 

not a substantive reality in itself, but is only a mental 

concept and which is represented to us through language 

appears to ordinary minds as if it were an objective reality. 

So the conception of time as discrete is the real one, 

wfiereas the conception of time as 

Time as discrete and successive or as continuous is unreal, 
Time as succession and 

Time as continuous being only due to the imagination 

which is purely Bud- /, i j i , 

dhi-Nirman. * our empirical and relative con- 

sciousness. Thus Vachaspati further 

explains it. A moment viewed in relation to things is 
said to appear as succession. Succession involves the 
notion of change of moments and this is called time by 
those sages who know what time was. Two moments 
cannot happen together. There cannot be any succession 
of two simultaneous things. Succession means the notion 
of change involving a preceding and a succeeding moment. 
Thus there is only the present moment and there are no 
preceding and later moments. Therefore there cannot be 
any union of these moments. The past and the future 
moments are those that are associated with change. Thus 
in one moment, the whole world suffers changes. All 
these characteristics are associated with the thing as 
connected with the present moment. 



So we find here that time is essentially discrete being 

only the moments of our cognitive life. As two moments 

never co-exist, there is no succession 

Unit of Change and or continuous time. They exist 

Unit of Time. . . , 

therefore only m our empirical con- 
sciousness which cannot take the real moments in their 
discrete nature that connect the one with the other and 
thus imagine succession or time as continuous. 


Now we have said before, that each unit of change or 
evolution is measured by this unit of time ^*H or moment ; 
or rather the unit of change is expressed in terms of these 
moments or Rshanas. Of course in our ordinary con- 
sciousness these moments of change cannot be grasped, 
but it can be reasonably inferred. For at the end of a 
certain period we observe a change in a thing ; now this 
change though it becomes appreciable to us after a long 
while, was still going on every moment, so, in this way, 
the succession of evolution or change cannot be distin- 
guished from the moments coming one after another. 
Thus Patanjali says in IV. 33. Succession involving a 
course of changes is associated with a collocation of 
moments (sutra 30-30). Succession as change of moments 
is grasped only by a course of changes. A cloth which 
has not passed through a series of moments cannot be 
considered as old (Bhashyaon the above). Even anew 
cloth kept with good care becomes old after a time. This 
is what is called the termination of a course of changes 
and by it the succession of a course of changes can be 
"rasped. Even before a thing is old there can be inferred 
a sequence of the subtlest, subtler, subtle, grossest, grosser 
and gross changes (Vachaspati's Tattvavisardi). 

. \\ 


Now then when we have seen that the unit of time 
is indistinguishable from the unit of change or evolution 

and as these moments are not co- 

Present, past and 

future absorbed in one existing but one following the other, 

moment of evolution. . 

we see that there is no past or future 

existing as a continuous before, or past and after or future. 
It is the present that really exists as the manifested 
moment, the past has been conserved as sublatent and the 
future as the latent. So the past and future exist in the 
present, the former as one which had already its manifes- 
tation and thus kept conserved in the fact of the manifes- 
tation of the present. For the manifestation of the present 
as such could not have taken place until the past had 
already been manifested ; so the manifestation of the 
present is a concrete product involving within itself the 
manifestation of the past ; in a similar way it may be 
said that the manifestation of the present contains within 
itself the seed or the unmanifested state of the future, 
for if it had not been the case, the future never could have 
come ; Ex nihilo nihil fits. So we see that the whole 
world undergoes a change at one unit point of time and 
not only that but conserves within itself all the past and 
future history of the cosmic evolution. 

We have pointed out before that the manifestation of 

the Rajas or energy as action is what 
Cosmic evolution as 

only a collection of the is called change. Now thisjmamfesta- 
GanaB - tiou of action can only take place when 

equilibrium of a particular collocation of Gunas is 
disturbed and the Rajas arranges or collocates with itself 
the Sattwa and Tamas, the whole group being made in- 
telligible by the inherent Sattwa. So the cosmic history 


is only the history of the different collocations of the 
Gunas. Now therefore if it is possible for a seer to see 
in one vision the possible number of combinations that 
the Rajas will have with Sattwa he can in one moment 
perceive the past, present or future of this cosmic evolu- 
tionary process ; for with such minds all past and future 
are concentrated at one point of vision which to an empiri- 
cal consciousness appears only in the series. For the 
empirical consciousness, impure as it is, it is impossible 
that all the powers and potencies of Sattwa and Rajas 
will become manifested at one point of time ; it has to 
take things only through its senses and can thus take the 
changes only as their senses are affected by them ; 
whereas on the other hand if its power of knowing was 
not restricted to the limited scope of the senses it could 
have read and perceived all the possible collocations 
or changes all at once. Such a perceiving mind whose 
power of knowing is not narrowed by the senses can 
perceive all the finest modifications or changes that are 
going on in the body of a substance see Yoga Sutra 
III. 53. 

Kapila and Patanjali proceeded possibly at first with 
an acute analysis of their phenomena 

^lyaisofconBcionB of know l edge . They perceived that 

all our cognitive states are distin- 
guished from their objects by the fact of their being intelli- 
gent. This intelligence is the constant factor which persists 
amidst all changes of our cognitive states. We are passing 
continually from one state to another without any rest, but 
in this varying change of these states we are never divested 
of intelligence. This fact of intelligence is therefore 
neither the particular possession of any one of these states 
nor that of the sum of these states ; for if it is not the 
possession of any one of these states ; it cannot be the 


possession of the sum of these ; states, in the case of 
the released person again there is no mental state, but 
there is the self-shining intelligence. So they regarded 
this intelligence as quite distinct from the so-called mental 
states which became intelligent by coming in connection 
with this intelligence. The actionless, absolutely pure and 
simple intelligence they called the Purusha. 

Now they began to analyse the nature of these states 

to find out their constituent elements 

Movement of or moments of existence if possible. 

Thought Rajas. 

Now in analysing the different states 

of our mind we find that a particular content of thought 
is illuminated and then passed over. The ideas rise, are 
illuminated and pass away. Thus they found that " move- 
ment " was one of the most principal elements that qpnsti- 
tuted the substance of our thoughts. Thought as such is 
always moving. This principle of movement, mutation 
or change, this energy, they called Rajas. 

Now apart from this Rajas, thought when seen as 
divested from its sensuous contents 

The Sattwa side of seeras to exhibit one universal mould 

or Form of knowledge which assumes 

the form of all the sensuous contents that are presented 
before it. It is the one universal of all our particular con- 
cepts or ideas the basis or substratum of all the different 
shapes imposed upon itself, the pure and simple. Is-ness 
(sattva) in which there is no particularity is that element of 
our thought which resembling Purusha most, can attain its 
reflection within itself and thus makes the unconscious 
mental states intelligible. All the contents of our thought 
are but modes and limitations of this universal form and 
are thus made intelligible. It is the one principle of 
intelligibility of all our conscious states. 



Now our intellectual life consists in a series of shining 

The Tamas side of ideas or concepts ; concepts after eon- 

our thought in connec- t shining forth in the light 

tion with the Sattwa 

side. of the Pure Intelligence and pass 

away. But each concept is but a limitation of the pure 
shining universal of our knowledge which underlies all its 
changing modes or modifications of concepts or judg- 
ments. This is what is called the pure knowledge in which 
there is neither the knower nor the known. This pure 
object subject-less knowledge differs fiom the Pure 
Intelligence or Purusha only in this that later on it is 
liable to suffer various modifications, as the ego, the senses, 
and the infinite percepts and concepts, etc., connected there- 
with, whereas the Pure Intelligence remains eTer pure and 
changeless and is never the substrate of any change. At 
this stage Sattwa, the intelligence stuff is prominent and 
the Rajas and Tamas are altogether suppressed. It is for 
this reason that the Buddhi or Intellect is often spoken of 
as the Sattwa. Being au absolute preponderance of Sattwa 
it has nothing else to manifest, but it is pure shining itself. 
Both Tamas and Rajas being altogether suppressed then 
cannot in any way affect the effulgent nature of this pure 
shining of contentless knowledge in which there is neither 
the knower nor the known. 

But it must be remembered that it is holding suspended 
as it were within itself the elements of Rajas and Tamas 
which cannot manifest themselves owing to the prepon- 
derance of the Sattwa. 

This notion of pure contentless knowledge is immediate 

The Pare Sattwa or and abstraet and as such is at once 

led e 0nfcentle88 know - mediated by other necessary phases. 

Thus we see that this pure conteutless 

universal knowledge is the same as the ego-universal. 

For this contentless universal knowledge is only another 


name for the contentless unlimited, infinite of the 
ego-universal. Thus Fiehte also says in the introduction 
of his Science of Ethics : " How an objective can ever 
become a subjective, or how a being can ever become 
an object of representation : this curious change will 
never be explained by any one who does not find a 
point where the objective and subjective are not 
distinguished at all, but are altogether one. Now such 
a point is established by, and made the starting point 
of our system. This poiut is the Egohood, the 
Intelligence, Reason, or whatever it m&y be named." 
Thus the Bhashya II. 19, describes i 

and aain in I. 36 we find 

^rwtafa rn*<T ^(T^TT)^ ^farn*?mft!Wt ff^ i Thus 
the word ^<PTT^ by which Panchasikha described this 
Egohood about three thousand years ago is only repeated 
in Germany in the words of Fiehte as the point where the 
subjective and the objective are not distinguished, the 
pure Egohood or ^famwrer as in Patanjali (Sutra IV. 4). 
This Mahat has also been spoken of by Vijnana Bhikshu as 
the TT. or Mind in the sense of final *frrew or fa^i, i.e., 
assimilation. Now what we have already 
ta^SSdhT" said a bout Mahat will, we hope, make 
it clear that this Mahat is the last 
limit up to which the subjective and the objective can be 
assimilated as one indistinguishable poiut which is neither 
the one nor the other, but which is the source of them both. 

This Buddhi is thus variously called as ?r??r, ^fadwn, 
*fT.. W&, ^ff and faF according to the aspects from which 
this state is looked at. 

This state is called Mahat as it is the most universal 
thing conceivable and the one common source from which 
all other things originate. 


Now this phase of Sattwa or pure shining naturally 
steps into the other phase, that of the Ego as knower 
or Ego as the subject. The first phase as TO* or 
*fmW* was the state in which the **r was predominant and 
the Rajas and Tamas are in a suppressed condition. The 
next moment is that in which the Rajas comes uppermost 
and thus the Ego as the subject of all cognition the sub- 
ject I the knower of all the mental states is derived. 
The eontentless subject-object-less "I" is the passive 
f? aspect of the Buddhi catching the reflection of the 
spirit or Purusha. 

In its active aspect however it feels itself one with 

the spirit and appears as the Ego or the subject which 

knows, feels and wills. Thus Patan- 

of the Buddhi and the 

wif?^ ifacn. Again in vm I. 17 
we have icvtftan ^ftsfarai, which Vachaspati explains 

ft?T. Thus we find that 

the Buddhi is affected by its own Rajas or activity 

and posits itself as the Ego or the subject as the activity. 

By this position of the " I " as active it perceives 

itself in the objective ; in all its conative and cognitive 

senses, in its thoughts and feelings and also in the external 

world of extension and co-existence or in the words of 

Panchasikha aranrainii 91 **WTOJ^nf*nratai fTO <re*FI^*TO 

W*% ^TTW an4^Hr|Jn-JnT5qiq^ V*wi: i Here the " I " 

is posited as the active entity which becomes conscious of 

itself or in other words the "I" becomes self- 

conscious. In analysing this notion of self-consciousness 

we find that here the Rajas or the element of agility, 

activity or mobility has become predominant and this 

predominance of Rtjas has been manifested by the inherent 

Sattwa, Thus we find that the Rajas side or "I ae 


active" has become manifested or known as such, i.e., "I" 
becomes conscious of itself as active. And this is just 
what is meant by self -consciousness. 

This ego or self-consciousness then comes off as the 

modification of the contentless pure consciousness of the 

Buddhi; it is therefore that we see 

,, Th e - ohood and that this self-consciousness is but a 

me cffo, 

modification of the universal Buddhi. 

The absolute identity of subject and object as the 
egohood is not a part of our natural consciousness for in 
!1 stages of our actual consciousness even in that of self- 
consciousness there is an element of the preponderance 
of Rajas or Activity which directs this unity as the 
knower and the known and then unites them as it were. 
Only so far as I distinguish myself as the conscious, from 
myself as the object of consciousness am I at all conscious 
of myself. Thus. Fichte says : " The whole mechanism 
of consciousness rests upon the manifold views of this 
separation and reunion of the subjective and the objec- 

When we see that the Buddhi transforms itself into 

the ego, the subject, or the knower at this its first phase 

there is no other content which it can 

The emanation of know > ii; therefore knows itself in a 
* he " !" very abstract way as the " I " or in 

other words, the ego becomes self- 
conscious ; but at this moment the ego has no content ; 
the Tamas being quite under suppression, it is evolved by 
a preponderance of the Rajas ; and thus its nature as Rajas 
is manifested by the Saltwa and thus the ego now essentially 
knows itself to be active, and holds itself as the permanent 
energising activity which connects with itself all the 
phenomena of our life. 


But now when the ego first directs itself towards itself 
and becomes conscious of itself, one question which naturally' 
comes to our mind is, " Can the 
The Subjective and ego direct itself towards itself and 

thus divi(ie itselt ' into a P arfc that sees 

I " in conse- an( } one toat j s seeD ." TO meet this 

quenco or the two- 

fold aspect of the question it is assumed that the Gunas 

contain within themselves the 
germs of both subjectivity and objec- 
tivity q^prt f% ? *3f' re<ju<i<*rcrsr sre*RT?U3r5hi. Thus we find 
that in the ego this quality as the perceiver of the Gunas 
comes to be first manifested and the ego turns back upon 
itself and makes itself itso\vn object. It is at this stage 
that we are reminded of the twofold nature of the Gunas : 

It is b}- virtue of tHis twofold nature that the subject 
can make itself its own object ; but as these two sides 
have not yet developed they are as yet only abstract and 
exist only in an implicit way in this self-consciousness. 

Enquiring further into the nature of the relation of 

thi* ego and the Buddhi, we find that the ego is only an- 

other phase or modification of the 

Ego only a moditica- Buddhi ', however different it might 

tion of Buddhi. appear from Buddhi it is only an 

appearance or phase of it ; its reality 

is the reality of the Buddhi. Thus we see that when the 

knower is affected in its different modes of concepts and 

judgments, the application is of the Buddhi as well ; thus 

Vyasa writes : 

: i 

Now from this ego we find that three developments 
Modifications of the take place in three distinct directions 

Ego. , . 

according to the preponderance of 
oattwa, Rajas or Tamas. 


By the preponderance of Rajas, the Ego develops itself 
into the five couative senses, Yak (speech), Pani (hands), 
Pada (feet), Payu (organ of passing the excreta) and Upastha 
(generative organ). By the preponderance of Sattwa, the 
Ego develops itself into the five cognitive senses ; hearing, 
touch, sight, taste and smell and by a preponderance of 
Tamas it stands as the Bhutadi and produces the five 
Tanmatras and these again by further preponderance of 
Tamas develops into the particles of the five gross elements 
of earth, water, light-heat, air and ether. 

Now it is clear that when the self becomes conscious 
of itself as the object, we see that there are three 

phases in it. (/') that in which the self 
The three Phases. . ,,... 

becomes an ob3ect to itself, (ii) when it 
directs itself or turns itself as the subject upon itself as the 
object, this moment of activity which can effect an aspect 
of change in itself, (Hi} the aspect of the consciousness of 
the self, the moment in which it perceives itself in its 
object, the moment of the union of itself as the subject and 
itself as the object in one luminosity of self-consciousness. 
Now that phase of self in which it is merely an object to 
itself is the phase of its union with Prakriti which further 
develops the Prakriti in moments of materiality by a 
preponderance of the inert Tamas of the Bhutadi into 
Tanmatras and these again into the five grosser elements 
which are then called the ^rngj or the perceptible. 

The Sattwa side of this ego or self -consciousness which 

was now undifferentiated becomes 

The modification as further differentiated, specialised 

the senses. 

and modified into the five cognitive 

senses with their respective functions of hearing, touch, 

sight, taste and smell, synch ronisino; 

The five BhntRB. ' * * 

with the evolution or the Prakriti 

on the Tanmatric side of evolution. These again 


individually suffer infinite modifications themselves and 
thus cause an infinite variety of sensations in their 
respective spheres in our conscious life. The Rajas side of 
the ego or the will becomes specialised as the active 
faculties of the five different conative organs. 

There is another specialisation of the Ego as the 
Manas which is its direct instrument for connecting 


itself with the five cognitive and 
AS the Manas conative senses. What is perceived 

as mere sensations by the senses is 
connected and generalised and formed into concepts by the 
it is therefore spoken of as *3^n$' in the ITO and 

T: *i<ti<<ni in the Karika. 

Now though the e volutes or modifications of Ahankara 
or Ego are formed by the prepon- 

Rajas an important derance of ^, ^T9 and ?T*m, vet 
factor in all pheno- 

mena of evolution. the T5i<B N is always the ^e^nft or 

instrumental of all these varied 
collocations of the Gunas ; it is the supreme principle 
of Energy and supplies even intelligence with the energy 
which it requires for its own conscious activity. Thus 
Lokacharyya says : The Tamasa Ego developing into the 
material world and the Sattwika Ego developing into the 
11 senses, both require the help of the Rajasa Ego for the 
production of this development ("<?i*nit '*nn?rcTit ^ntfrofq^st 
<<wrc: **tft wft ") and Barabara in his *n* writes : 
just as a seed-sprout requires for its growth the help of 
water as instrumental cause, so the Rajasa Ahankara 
(Ego) works as the instrumental cause (?mnft) for the 
transformations of Sattwika and Tamasa Ahankara into 
their evolutes. The mode of working of this instrumental 
cause is described as " Rajas is the mover." The Rajasa 
Ego thus moves the Sattwa part to generate the senses ; 
the Tamas part generating the gross and subtle matter is 


also moved by the Rajas, the agent of movement. The 
Rajasa Ego is thus called the common cause of the 
movement of the Sattwika and the Tamasa Eo. 

?;5i: vwfrf cm 


also says : Though llajas has no work by itself yet since 
Sattwa and Tamas (though capable of undergoing modi- 
fication) are actionless in themselves, the agency of Rajas 
lives in this that it moves them both for the production 
.of the effect, ?rarfq vnt 

r. ffci 

And according as the modifications are ^nft^T, ?TW3 or 

the ego which is the cause of 

The three forms of t |, ege Different modifications is also 
the ego. 

called Vaikarika, Bhutadi and Taijasa : 

The Mahat also as the source of the Vaikarika, Taijasa 
and Bhutadi ego may be said to have three aspects ; thus 
Barabara Muni says : the original Prakriti is made up of 
three gunas from which every thing is produced. Mahat 
and the Ego produced from it are also made up of the 
three unas. " 

Now speaking of the relation of the sense faculties with 
the sense organs, we see that the 

Relation of the sense , , 

faculties with their latter which are made up ot the gross- 
specific organs. er e ] ements are the vehicle of the for- 

mer, for if the latter are injured in any way, the former 
is also necessarily affected : ^iwifrffflfo JTOiaflPW^^'IW 
jjicnfasH^, ijjtTtawsTCTq^wt "sninftsngM * K m * H <t*iw( i 

To take for example the specific case of the faculty of 
hearing and its organ, we see that the faculty of hearing 


is seated in the ether within oui- ear-hole. It is here that 
the power of hearing is located. When soundness or 
defect is noticed therein, soundness or defect is noticed in 
the power of hearing al?o. Further when the sounds 
of solids, etc., are to be taken in, then the power of hearing 
located in the hollow of the ear stands in need of the 
capacity of resonance residing in the substratum, the Akasa 
of the ear. 

This sense of hearing then having its origin in the 
principle of egoism, acts like iron, drawn as it is by sound 
originated and located in the mouth of the speaker acting 
as loadstone, transforms them into its own modifications 
in sequence of the sounds of the speaker, and thus senses 
them. And it is for this reason that for every living 
creature, the perception of sound in external space in the 
absence of defects is never void of authority. Thus Pancha- 
sikha also says as quoted in WTO III, 41 : 

" To all those whose organs of hearing are similarly 
situated, the situation of hearing is the same/' The Akasa 
again in which the power of hearing is seated is born 
out of the soniferous Tanmatra, and has therefore the 
quality of sound inherent in itself. It is by this sound 
acting in unison that it takes the sounds of external 
solids, etc. This then establishes that the Akasa is the 
substratum of the power of hearing, and also possesses the 
quality of sound. And this sameness of the situation of 
sound is an indication of the existence of Akasa as that 
which is the substratum of the auditory power !ruti which 
manifests the sounds of the same class in Akasa. Such 
a manifestation of sound cannot be without such an 
auditory power. Nor is such an auditory power a quality 
of Prthivl (Earth), etc., because it cannot be in its own self 
both the manifestor and the manifested (sqwy and 
See Vachaspati Patanjala, III, 40.) 


There are other views prevalent about the genesis of the 

senses, to which it may be worth our 

Some divergent wn il e to pay some attention as we 

views considered. 

pass by. 

The Sattwika ego in generating the cognitive senses 
with limited powers for certain 

of 8ense 

laipingaiacharyya the counted for their developments from 

commentator of Vish- ., i* 

nupurana. itselr in accompaniment or the 

specific Tanmatras. Thus 

Sattwika ego + Sound potential = sense of hearing. 
Sattwika ego + Touch potential = sense of touch. 
-f- Sight = senses of vision. 

+ Taste = sense of taste. 

+ Smell = sense of smell. 

The conative sense of speech is developed in accom- 
paniment of the sense of hearing, that of hand in accom- 
paniment of the sense of touch ; that of feet in accompani- 
ment of the sense of vision ; that of Upastha in accompani- 
ment of the sense of taste ; that of Payu in accompaniment 
of the sense of smell. 

Last of all the Manas is developed from the ego 
without any co-operating or accompanying cause. 

The Naiyayikas however think that the senses are 

generated by the gross elements, the 

view' 9 Naiyayikas> ear for example by Akasa, the touch 

by air and so forth. But Loka- 

charyya holds that the senses are not generated by 

gross matter but are rather sustained and strengthened 

by them. 

There are others who think that the ego is the instru- 
mental and the gross elements are 
the material causes in the production 
of the senses. 


The Bhashyakara's view is, I believe, now quite clear 
since we see that the Mahat through 

Ahanksr the cause ^he Ahankara generates from the 
of the senses. . . . 

latter (as differentiations trom it, 

though it itself exists as integrated in the Mahat) the 
senses, and their corresponding gross elements. 

Before proceeding further to trace the development 

of the Bhutadi on the Tanmatric side, 
The difference of T ., . , ., L ,. , , 

Saukhya and Yoga I think it is best to refer to the views 

views of the deriva- about the supposed difference between 

tion of the categories. 

the Yoga and the views of ordinary 

Sankhya compendium^ about the evolution of the categories. 
Now according to the Yoga view two parallel lines of 
evolution start from Mahat, which on one side develops into 
the Ego, Manas, the five cognitive and the five conative 
senses, and on another side it develops into the five grosser 
elements through the five Tanmatras which are directly 
produced from Mahat through the medium Ahankar. 

Thus the view as found in the Yoga works may be 
tabulated thus : 



_j , 

I L_ 

Asmita Tanmatras 5 

11 senses (eleven). 5 gross elements. 

The view of ordinary Sankhya Compendiums may be 
tabulated thus. 




1 * enses ' 5 Tanmatras 

Gross elements. 


The place in the *vw *fTO which refers to this 
enesis is that antler 

For easy reference I quote that portion of the 
here, which may appear suitable for the purpose. 


In this rng (I) the fully specialised ones, Visheshas, 
the grosser elements are said to have been derived from 
the Tanmatras and (II) the senses and Manas the faculty 
of reflection are said to have been specialised from the Ego 
or *lfwn. The Tanmatras however have not been derived 
from the ego or 'fffJffiT here. But they together with 'sfforcH 
are spoken of as the six slightly specialised ones, the five 
being the five Tanmatras and the sixth one being the ego. 
These six Avisheshas are the specialisations of the Mahat, 
the great egohood of pure Be-uess. It therefore 
appears that the six Avisheshas are directly derived from 
the Mahat, after which the ego ^rfticn develops into the 
11 senses and the Tanmatras into the five gross elements 
in three different lines. 

But let us see how Yoga Varttika explains the point 
here : Tg 

Bhikshu'a state- 



3? WTO fW 

Thus we see that the Yoga Varttika says that -the 

Bhashya is here describing the modifi- 

View of Nfigesa, etc., cations of Buddhi in two distinct 

compared. . 

classes, the Avisheshas and the Vi- 

sheshas ; and that the Mahat has been spoken of as the 
source of all the Avisheshas : the five Tanmatras and the 
ego; truly speaking however the genesis of the Tanmatras 
from Mahat takes place through the ego and in association 
with the ego, for it has been so described in the Sutra 

^n'W I. 45. 

Nagesha in explaining this n9 only repeats the view of 
Yoa Varttika : ?rafa cf*Jn<nfaj 

Now let us refer to the WTO of I. 45, alluded to by the 

Yoga Varttika: 

: i ^n^rei^fiiira^ i i^^j ^xr^n^ i 
idia[*( ?f%, ^^fw^^ii:: i ^ifq 
and Yoga Varttika says here also 
^w; ^n^ar?i i Here by q^jgc it is the Upadanakarana or 
material cause which is meant; so 
Continued. the HTO further says : 

1 believe it is quite clear that *re$-K is spoken of here as 
the ^3J ^Rfosnrw of the Tanmatras. This ^fwir*s is the 
same as ^n^ff *KWH as ^T^trfH says Hq^iRi?n ^^il. Now 
again in the HTO of the same Sutra II. 19 later on we 

The Mahat tattwa (Linga) is associated with the 
Prakriti (Alinga). Its development is thus to be considered 


as the production of a differentiation as integrated within 
the Prakriti. The six Avisheshas are also to be considered 
as the production of successive differentiations as integrated 
within the Mahat. 

The words ^^ei rfo^w are the most important here ; 
for they show us the real nature of the transformations. 
-" &&\ " means integrated and fofws^T means differentiated. 
This shows that the order of evolution as found in the 
Sankhya compendiurns (viz., Mahat from Prakriti, Abam- 
kara from Mahat and the 1 1 senses and the Tanmatras 
from Ahamkara) is true only in this sense that these modi- 
fications of Ahamkara takes place directly as differentiations 
of characters in the body of Mahat. As these differentia- 
tions take place through Ahamkara as the first moment in 
the series of transfoi mations it is said that the transforma- 
tions take place directly from Ahankara ; whereas when 
stress is laid on the other aspect it appears that the 
transformations are but differentiations as integrated in the 
body of the Mahat, and thus it is also said that from Mahat 
the s,ix Avisheshas namely Ahankara and the five Tanmatras 
come out. This conception of evolution as differentiation 
within integration bridges up the running gulf between the 
views of Yoga and the ordinary Sankhya Compendiums. We 
know that the Tanmatras are produced from the Tamasa 
Ahankara. This Ahankara is nothing but the Tamasa side 
of Mahat roused into creating activity by Rajas. The 
^attwika Ahankara is put as a separate category producing 
the senses whereas the Tamas as Bhfttadi produces the 
Tanmatras from its disturbance while held up within 
the Mahat. 

Nagesa in the Chhaya Vyakhya of II. 19 however 
gives quite a different explanation, he says : < 


Thus the order of the evolution 
Order of evolution o f the Tanmatras as here referred to 

of the Tanmatras. 

is as follows : 
(Tamas Ahankara) 

The evolution of the Tanmatras has been variously 

described in the Puranas and the 

Different views of Smriti Literature. These divergent 

the genesis of the 

Tanmatras. views can briefly be brought under 

two classes : those who derive the 
Tanmatras from the Bhutas and those who derive the 
Tanmatras from tho Ahankara and Bhutas from them. 
Some of these Schools have been spoken of in the Barabara 
Muni's commentary on the Tattwatraya a treatise 
on the llamanuja Philosophy and have been already 
explained in a systematic way by Dr. B. N. Seal. I 
therefore refrain from repeating them needlessly. About 
the derivation of the Tanmatras I further add that all 
the other Sankhya treatises, the Karika, the Kaumudi, 
the Tattwa YaisaradT, the Sutra and Pravachana Bhashya, 
the Siddhantachandrika, Sutrarthabodhinl, the Raj- 
martanda and the Maniprablm seem to be silent. 


Further speaking of the Tanmatras, Vijnana Bhikshu 
says that 

The Tanmatras are only in unspecialised forms, they 
therefore can neither be felt nor perceived in any way by 
the senses of ordinary men. This is that indeterminate 
state of matter in which they can never be distinguished 
one from the other, and they cannot be perceived to be 
possessed of different qualities or specialised in any way. 
It is for this that they are called Tanmatras, i.e., when 
their only specialization is a mere thatness. The Yogis 
alone can perceive them. 

Now turning towards the further evolution of the 

grosser elements from the TanmStras, 
Genesis of the . ,. 

grosser atoms. we see that there is a great diver- 

gence of view here also, some of 
which are shown below. Thus Vachaspati says : 


i I. 44. 

Thus here we find that the Akasa atom ^ri has been 
generated simply by the Akasa Tanmatra; the Vayu atom 
has been generated by two Taumatras, Sabda and Sparsa, 
of which the Sparsa appears there as the chief. The 
Tejas atom has been developed from the oabda, Sparsa 
and Rupa Tanmatras though the Rftpa is predominant 
in the group. The Ap atom has been developed from the 
four Tanmatras, Sabda, Sparsa, Rupa and Rasa, though 
Rasa is predominant in the group, and the Earth or Kshiti 
atom has been developed from the 5 Tanmatras, though 
the Gandha Tanmatra is predominant in the group. 





Now the Yoga Varttika agrees with Vachaspati in all 
these details but differs from it only 
Vijfiana Bhikshu's . ^ tfc t Jt that the Akgga 

atom has been generated from the 
6abda Tanmatra with an ai-cretion from Bhutadi, whereas 
Vachaspati says that the Akasa atom is generated simply 
b the Akasa Tanmatra only. Thus the Yoga Varttika 

Nagesa however takes a slightly different view and 

says that to produce the gross atoms, 
Nagesa's view. frQm ^ Tanm - traSj an accret i on o f 

Bhutadi as an accompanying agent is necessary at every 
step ; so that we see that the Vayti atom is produced from 
these three : Sabda + Spar sa-f accretion from Bhutadi. Tejas 
atom = abda + Sparsa + Rupa + accretion from Bhutadi. 
Ap atom = oabda + Sparsa + Rupa 4- Rasa 4- accretion from 
Bhutadi. Kshiti atom = Sabda -f- Sparsa + Rupa + llasa 
+ Gandha + accretion from Bhutadi. Thus he says : 

I refrain from giving the Vishnu Purana view which 
has also been quoted in the Yoga 

"Views referred to 
in Dr. Seal's treatise. Varttika and the view of a certain 

school of Vedantists mentioned in. the 
Tattwa Niru[)ana and referred to and described in the 
Tattwatraya, as Dr. B. N. Seal has already described 
them in his article. 

We see thus that from *j?nfe comes the five Tan- 

matras which can be compared to the 
TanmStras and the -IT v 
Vaisheshika atoms. Vaisheshika atoms as they have no 

parts and neither grossness nor visible 
differentiation. Some differentiation has of course already 
begun in the Tanmatras as they are called abda, Sparsa, 
Kupa, Rasa and Gandha which therefore may be said to 
belong to a class akin to the grosser elements of Akasa, 


Vayu, Tejas, Ap and Kshiti, so the Bhashya also says, 
!<4K s l'li Sr^fmTsraTcftgrrm I 

The next one, the Paramanu, which is gross in its 

nature and is generated from the 
The gross atoms, , ... . . 

lanmatras which exist in it as parts 

may be compared with the Trasarenu of the 
Vaisheshikas or with the atoms of Dalton. Thus the 
Yoga Varttika says 

The Bhashya also says ^unqgfw^rT' 5^j q?;*n^: III. 52. 
The Sutra also notes qwr; q*^WT^i*TtS*rRsffarTC. I. 40. 
The third form is gross water, air, fire, etc., which is 
said to belon to the ?r class. 

Form as gross air, T . . , , 

water, etc. A can not express it better than by 

quoting a passage from Nagesa : The 

hearing of the remarks of the Bhashya is this that in the 
Tanmatras there exist the specific differentiation that 
constitute the five elements, kshiti, etc. By the combina- 
tion of the five Tanmatras, the kshiti atom is generated 
and by the conglomeration of these gross atoms gross 
earth is formed. So again by the combination of the 
four Tanmatras the water atom is formed and the 
conglomeration of these water atoms make the gross water. 

There is however another measure which is called the 
measure of q?u Tfrf which belongs to Akasa for example. 
Now these Paramauus or atoms are not merely atoms 

of matter but they contain within 

The feeling Elements ., .. , ..'.. 

of the Ghmas. themselves those particular qualities 

by virtue of which they appear, as 
pleasant, unpleasant or passive to us. If we have been 


able to express ourselves well, I believe it has been made 
clear that when the inner and the outer proceed from one 
source, the ego and the external world do not altogether 
differ in nature from the inner ; both have been formed by 
the collocation of the Gunas ^fas JpsnTt ^fatsnfimwrw ' 
The same book which in the inner microcosm is written in 
the language of ideas has been in the external world written 
in the language of matter. So in the external world we 
ha ; e all the grounds of our inner experience, cognitive as 
well as emotional, pleasurable as well as painful. The 
modifications of the external world are only translated 
into ideas and feelings ; it is therefore that these Paramanus 
are spoken of as endowed with feelings. Thus the Karika 
says : 

^ <?ft msngnqftfoitasr ftw ^raricUT ? 
'. ? 


The Vishnu Purana also says : 


Thus we see that here is another difference between 
the Tanmatras and the Paramanus. The former cannot be 
perceived to be endowed with the feeling elements as the 
latter. Some say that it is not however true that the 
Tanmatras are not endowed with the feeling elements, but 


they cannot be perceived by any one except the 
Yogis ; thus it is said : rfirranrwfa TTWTsjT^rT^W^^ini <rer 
?ftfl*nwr**i i The Tanmatras also possess differentiated 
characters, but they can be perceived only by the Yogis ; 
but this is not one of universal admission. 

Now these Paramanus cannot further be evolved into 
any other different kind of existence 

The particular form or j^ fr ft^. ^^^ f ) W 
of evolution with the * 

atoms. that the Paramanus though they have 

been formed from the Tanmatras 

resemble them only in a very remote way and are therefore 
placed in a separate stadium of evolution. 

Now with the Blmtas we have the last stadium or 
stage of the evolution of Gunas. The course of evolution 
however does not cease here but continue ceaselessly 
as ever, but by its process no new stadium of existence 
is generated, but the product of the evolution is such 
that in it the properties of the gross elements which com- 
pose its constitution can be found directly. This is what 
is called >f | JRft'n*r. as distinguished from the Tattwantara- 
parinama spoken above. The evolution of the Visheshas 
from the Avisheshas is always styled as craprT?: qftmw: as 
opposed to the evolution that takes place among the 
Visheshas themselves which is called ^4n?fTWTjT or evolution 
by change of qualities. Now these atoms of Paramanus 
of Kshiti, Ap, Tej, Marut or Akasa conglomerate together 
and form all sentient or non-sentient bodies of the world. 
The different atoms of earth, air, fire, water, etc., conglo- 
merate together and form the different animate bodies 
such as cow, etc., or inanimate bodies such as jug, etc., and 
vegetables like the tree, etc. These bodies are built up by the 
conglomerated units of the atoms in such a way that they 
are almost in a state of fusion and lose themselves into the 
whoje in a state of combination which has been styled as 


In such a combination the parts do not 
stand independently but only hide themselves as it were 
in order to manifest the whole body, so that by the 
conglomeration of the particles we have what may be 
called a body, which is regarded as a quite different thing 
from the atoms of which they are composed. These 
bodies change with the different sorts of change or arrange- 
ment of the particles, according to which the body may be 
spoken of as " one," " large," "small," tangible or possessing 
the quality of action. There are some philosophers 
who hold the view that a body was really nothing except 
the conglomeration of the atoms ; but they must be 
altogether wrong here since they have no right to ignore 
the " body," which appears with all its specific qualities 
and attributes before them ; moreover, if they ignore the 
body they have to ignore almost everything for the atoms 
themselves are not visible. 

Again these atoms though so much unlike the 

Vaisheshika atoms since they contain 
Harmonious and 
united activity of thp Tanmatras of a different nature as 

a Pn>Ce8S f their constituents and thus differ 
from the simpler atoms of the Vaishe- 
shikas, compose the constituents of all inorganic, organic or 
animal bodies in such a way that there is no break of 
harmony no Apposition between them but on the contrary, 
when any of the Gunas existing in the atoms and their 
conglomerations becomes prominent, the other Gunas 
though their functions are different from it. yet do 
not run counter to the prominent Guna but conjointly 
with the prominent Guna help it to form the specific 
modification for the experiences of the Purusha. In 
the production of a thing the different Gunas do 
not choose different independent courses for their 
evolution, but join together and effectuate themselves in 


the evolution of a single product. Thus we see also that 
when the atoms of different gross elements possessing diffe- 
rent properties and attributes conglomerate together their 
difference of attributes does not produce a confusion but 
by a common teleology they unite in the production of the 
particular substances (see IV. 14). 

Thus we see that the bodies or things composed by 
The Dharma Pan- the collocation of the atoms in some 
' iama sense differ from the atoms them- 

selves and in another are only identical with the atoms 
themselves. We see therefore that the appearance of the 
atoms as bodies or things differs with the change of 
position of the atoms amongst themselves. So we can 
s;iy that the change of the appearance of things and bodies 
only shows the change of the collocation of the atoms, 
there being always a change of appearance in the bodies 
consequent on every change of the position of the atoms. 
The former therefore is only an explicitude in appearance 
of the change that takes place in the substance itself ; for 
the appearance of a thing is only an explicit aspect of the 
very selfsame thing the atoms : thus the vrro says : 
mPiwwnalft **&:, trfafoftraT ^ ^i ^?TCT irwnt i Often it 
happens that the change of appearance of a thing or a 
body, a tree or a piece of cloth for example can be marked 
only after a long interval. This however only shows that 
the atoms of the body had been continually changing and 
consequently the appearance of the body or the thing also 
had been continually changing ; for otherwise we can in 
no way account for the sudden change of appearance. All 
bodies are continually changing the constituent collocation 
of atoms and their appearances. In the smallest particle 
of time or gni the whole universe undergoes a change. 
Each moment or the smallest particle of time is only the 
manifestation of that particular change. Time therefore 


has not a separate existence in this philosophy as in the 
Vaisheshika but it is only identical with the smallest amount 
of change viz., that of an atom of its own amount of space. 
Now here the appearance is called the vfr and that parti- 
cular arrangement of atoms or Gunas which is the basis 
of the particular appearance is called the >^f. The change 
of appearance is therefore called the ^qfrBTT I 

Again this change of appearance can be looked at 
Lakshana and Avas- ^om two other aspects which though 

thftParinima. no ^ intrinsically different from the 

change of appearance have their own special points of 
view which make them remarkable. These are Lakshana 
Parinama (srsroqfruw) or Avastha Parii.iama ("IWT- 
qfcaw). Taking the particular collocation of atoms 
in a body for review, we see that all the subsequent 
changes that take place in it are existing only in a latent 
way in it which will however be manifested in future. 
All the previous changes of the collocating atoms are not 
also lost but exist only in a sublatent way in the particular 
collocation of atoms present before us. For the past changes 
are not at all destroyed but preserved in the peculiar 
and particular collocation of atoms of the present moment. 
For had not the past changes taken place the present 
could not have come. The present had held itself hidden 
in the past just as the future is hidden within the present. 
It therefore only comes into being with the unfolding 
of the past which therefore exists only in a sublatent 
form in it. 

It is on account of this that we see that a body comes 
into being and dies away. This birth 

Continued. . . 

or death though it is really subsumed 

under the change of appearance has its own special aspect, 
on account of which it has been given a separate name 
as Lakshana Parinama (srenuwlxniTO). It considers the 


three stages of an appearance the unmanifested when it 
exists in the future, the manifested moment of the 
present, and the past when it has been manifested, 
lost to view but conserved and kept in all the onward 
stages of the evolution. Thus when we say that a 
thing has not yet come into being, that it has just come 
into being, and that it is no longer, we refer to this 
Lakshana Parinama (^RinqfriiTO) which records the history 
of the thing in future, present and past, which are only the 
three different moments of the same thing according to its 
different characters, as unmanifested, manifested and 
manifested past but conserved. 

Now it often happens that though the appearance of 
a thing is constantly changing owing 
to the continual change of the atoms 
that compose it, yet the changes are so fine and infini- 
tesimal that they cannot be marked by any one except the 
Yogis; for though there may be going on structural 
changes tending towards the final passing away of that 
structure and body into another structure and body which 
greatly differs from it yet they may not be so remarkable 
to us, who can take note of the bigger changes alone. 
Taking therefore two remarkable stages of the things the 
difference between which may be so notable as to justify 
us to call the later one the dissolution or destruction of 
the former, we assert that the thing has suffered growth 
and decay in the interval, during which the actual was 
passing into the sublatent and the potential was 
tending towards actualization. This is what is called the 
Avastha Parinama or change of condition which however 
does not materially differ from the ^inifoiJW and can 
thus be held to be a mode of it. It is on account of this 
that a substance is called new or old, grown or decayed. 
Thus in explaining the illustration given in the .Bhashya 



of the " 

sa y S . _ 

ffir, w the Yoga Varttika 
iff ?T9T 

It is now time for us to look once more to the relation 
of tnflf, substance and u4r, its quality or appearance. 

The >fl?f or substance is that which remains common to 

the latent (as having passed over or 

Dharmi and Dharma. yn*i)> the rising (the present or ^?r) 

and the unpredicable (future or *raw^jg) 

sharacteristic qualities of the substance. 

The substance (take for example, Earth), has the power 
of existing in the form of particles of dust, a lump or a 
jug by which water may be carried. Now taking the 
stage of lump for review we may think of its previous 
stage, that of particles of dust, as being latent, and its 
future stage as jug as the unpredicable. The earth we see 
here to be common to all these three stages which have 
come into being by its own activity and consequent 
changes. Earth here is the common quality which re- 
mains unchanged in all these stages and so relatively 
constant among its changes as particles, lump and jug. 
This Earth therefore is regarded as the ^^f, characterised 
one, the substance ; and its stages as its ^*w or qualities. 
When this >f*iff or substance undergoes a change from a 
stage of lump to a stage of jug, it undergoes what is 
called >HRfww or change of quality. 

But its ir$, as the shape of the jug may be thought to have 
itself undergone a change inasmuch as it has now come into 
being, from a state of relative non-being, latency or unpredi- 
cability. This is called the wrqftwr of the ^ or qualities 
as constituting ^z. This ^z is again suffering another change 
as new or old according as it is just produced or is gradually 
running towards its dissolution, and this is called the 


or change of condition. These three however are 
not separate from the ^*irofc?rw but 
Continued. are on jy aspects of it ; so it may be 

said that the trot or substance directly 
suffers the WRfrwr and indirectly the si^r and the 
^ra^n^ftwr- The *H? however suffers the stwuqftww directly. 
The object which has suffered 5re<uq[Ti!W can be looked at 
from another point of view, that of change of state, viz., 
growth and decay. Thus we see that though the atoms of 
Kshiti, Ap, etc., remain unchanged, they are constantly 
suffering changes from the inorganic to the plants and 
animals, and from thence again back to the inorganic. 
There is thus a constant circulation of changes in which 
the different atoms of Kshiti, Ap, Tej, Vayu and Akasa 
remaining themselves unchanged are suffering ^"Jrof^lW 
as they are changed from the inorganic to plants and 
animals and back again to the inorganic. These different 
states or vffr as inorganic, etc., again, according as they are 
not yet, now, and no longer or passed over, are suffering 
the srg^qfww. There is also the 'SR^nqfrwro of these 
states according as any one of them (the plant state for 
example), is growing or suffering decay towards its dissolu- 

This circulation of the cosmic matter in general 
applies also to all particular things 

The evolutionary say the j u the c ] oth ete< t 
process constant. 

of evolution here will be that of 
powdered particles of earth, lump of earth, the earthen 
jug, the broken halves of the jug and again the powdered 
earth. As the whole substance has only one identical 
evolution, these different states only happen in order of 
succession, the occurrence of one characteristic being dis- 
placed by another characteristic which comes after it 
immediately. We thus see that one substance may undergo 


endless changes of characteristic in order of succession ; 
and along with the ehange of characteristic or *4 we 
have the ^imRiiW and the ^wrfw* as old or new 

which is evidently one of infinitesimal changes of growth 
and decay. Thus Vachaspati gives the following beauti 
ful example ^wfr ^*^ irawfan *ft t% 


fsretsqsfi*: i (A peasant 
stocks quantities of paddy for many years, and the 
parts of these become so fragile that by the merest 
touch these become powdered into dust. Such changes 
could never happen with new paddy. Thus, it is to be 
admitted that in successive moments, this change must 
have continued to work from subtler beginnings to the 
grossest ones, which were found to manifest themselves 
after a great lapse of time as in the case of the paddy 
we have spoken of.) 

We now see that the substance has neither past nor 
future, the appearances or the qualities 
The substance.. O nly are manifested in time by virtue 
of which the substance also is spoken 
of as varying and changing temporally, just as a line 
remains unchanged in itself but acquires different 
significances according as one or two zeroes are placed on 
its right side. The substance the atoms of f%fa, ^re, ^% 
*re?f, 5^ , etc., by various changes of quality appear as the 
manifold varieties of cosmical existence. There is no in- 
trinsic difference between one thing and another but only 
changes of character of one and the same thing; thus the 
gross elemental atoms like the water and earth particles 
acquire various qualities and appear as the various juices 
of all fruits and herbs. Now in analogy to the arguments 
stated above, it will seem that even a qualified thing or 


appearance may be relatively regarded as the substance 
when it is seen to remain common to various other modi- 
fications of that appearance itself. Thus a jug which may 
remain common in all its modifications of colour may be 
regarded relatively as the wf or substance of all these 
special appearances or modifications of the same appearance. 
We remember that the Gunas which are the final 
substratum of all the grosser particles 
Gunas always in a are a l w ays in a state of commotion 

state ot commotion. 

and always evolving in the manner 
stated before, for the sake of the experiences and the 
final realisation of the Purusha, the only teleology of 
the Prakriti. Thus the vrro says ^ ^"Ji^^nsiWjfT^T**: 1*T f 
TJI TT*ref?rs?t i ^N Jjwifw i Jjijsjnvnsi g nfffi^Ttiifrai 

I 3JH=WTO III. 13. 
The pioneers of modern scientific evolution have 
indeed tried scientifically to observe 
Comparison with some O f fa e stages of the growth of 

modern theories of 

evolution of Darwin. the inorganic, and the animal world 

into the man, but they do not give 
any reason for it. Theirs is more an experimental assertion 
of facts, than a metaphysical account of it. According 
to Darwin the general form of the evolutionary process 
is that which is accomplished by " Very slight variations 
which are accumulated by the effect of natural selection." 
And according to a later theory, we see that a new species 
is constituted all at once by the simultaneous appearance of 
several new characters very different from the old. But 
why this accidental variation, this seeming departure from 
the causal chain, comes into being the evolutionists 
cannot explain. But the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine 
explains it from the standpoint of teleology or the 
final goal inherent in all matter, so that it may be 
serviceable to the Purusha. To be serviceable to the Pqrusha 


is the one moral purpose in the whole Prakriti and its 
manifestations in the whole material world, which guides 
the course and direction of the smallest particle of 
matter. From the scientitic point of view the Sankhya 
Pataujala doctrine is very much in the same place as 
the modern scientists for it does not explain the 
cause of the accidental variation noticed in all the stages 
of evolutionary process from any physical point of view 
based on the observation of facts. 

But it goes much to the credit of the Patanjala 
doctrine that they explain this 
accidental variation, this 

and the teleology of or unpredicabilitv of the onward 


course of evolution from a moral 

point of view, the view of teleology, the serviceability of the 
Purusha. They however found that this teleology should 
not be used to usurp all the nature and function of 
matter. By virtue of the Rajas or energy we find that 
the atoms are always moving and it is to this movement 
of the atoms in space that all the products of 
evolution are accountable. We have found that the 
difference between the juices of cocoanut, palm, Bel, 
Tinduka (Diospyros Embryopteries) Amalaka (Emblic 
Myrobalan) can all be accounted for by the particular 
and peculiar arrangement of the atoms of earth and 
water alone, by their stress and strain alone ; and we 
see also that the evolution of the organic from the 
inorganic is also due to this change of position of the 
atoms themselves; for the unit of change is the change 
of an atom of its own dimension of spatial position. 
There is always the transformation of energy from the 
inorganic to the organic and back again from the organic. 
So that the differences among things are only due to the 

_ . / 

diftereut stages which they occupy in the scale of evolution, 


as different expressions of the transformation of energy; 
but virtually there is no intrinsic difference among things 
^fsr' ;&eit<U3f ; the change of the collocation of atoms only 
changes the potentiality into actuality, for everywhere 
throughout this changing world, there is the potentiality of 
everything for every thing. Thus \achaspati writes : 

i i% 

^ III. 11.) 

Looked at from the point of view of the Gunas, there 
is no intrinsic difference between 

Evolution is quali- things, though there is a thousand 
fied by the place in 

which the thing exists. manifestation of differences, according 
to time, place, form and causality. 
The expressions of the Gunas, and the manifestations of the 
transformations of energy differ according to time, place, 
shape, or causality which are the determining circum- 
stances and surrounding environments, which determine 
the modes of the evolutionary process ; surrounding 
environments are also involved in determining this change 
and it is said that two Amalaka fruits placed in two 
different places undergo two different sorts of changes in 
connection with the particular points of place in which 
they are placed, and that if anybody transfers them 
mutually a Yogi can recognise and distinguish the one 
from the other by seeing the changes that the fruits 
have undergone in connection with their particular points 
of space Thus the vn&i says : Two Amalaka fruits having 
the same characteristic genus and species, their situation 
in two different points of space contributes to theii 


specific distinction of development so that they may be 
identified as this and that. When an Amalaka at a 
distance is brought before a man who was inattentive to it 
then naturally he cannot distinguish this Amalaka as 
being the distant one which has been brought before him 
without his knowledge. But right knowledge should be 
competent to discern the distinction ; and the sutra says 
that the place associated with one Amalaka fruit is 
different from the place associated with another Amalaka 
at another point of space ; and the Yogi can perceive the 
difference of their specific evolution in association with 
their points of space ; similarly the atoms also suffer 
different modifications at different points of space which 
can be perceived by Iswara and the Yogis. 

?J^T g i 

Tpg III. 53) 

Vachaspati again says : Though all cause is essentially 
all effects yet a particular cause takes 
effect in a Particular place, thus 
though the cause is the same still 
saffron grows in Kashmere and not in Panchala. So the rains 
do not come in summer, the vicious do not enjoy happiness. 
Thus in accordance with the obstructions of place, time, 
animal form, and instrumental accessories, the same cause 
does not produce the same effect. rafo 



: f fa i 
i (SSTRWTZT III. 15). 

Time space, etc., we see therefore are the limitations 
which regulate, modify and determine to a certain extent the 
varying transformations and changes and the seeming differ- 
ences? of things, though in reality they are all ultimately 
reducible to the three Gunas; thus Kasmere being the country 
of saffron it will not grow in the Panchala country even 
though the other causes of its growth were all present 
there ; here the operation of cause is limited by space. 

After considering the inorganic, vegetable and animal 

kingdoms as the three stages in the evolutionary process, our 

attention is at once drawn to their 

^Plant-life ami animal concept i on o f the nature of relation of 

plantlife to animal life. To this point 

though I do not find any special reference in the Bhashya yet 

I am reminded of a few passages in the Mahabharat, which 

I think may be added as a supplement to the general 

doctrine of evolution according to the Sankhya Patanjala 

Philosophy as stated here. Thus the Mahabharat says : 


: Hpq?n: ^f^ cr^nn f^mf^r m^T 



Nilkantha in his commentary goes still further and 
says that a hard substance called ngpftr also may be called 
living. ^fl^fq ^fflffirsitfafWrctfi aft^wiirej %ff5i' an^ict i 
Here we see that the ancients had to a certain extent fore- 
stalled the discovery of Sir J. C. Bose that the life func- 
tions differed only in degree between the three classes, the 
inorganic, plants and animals. 

These are all however, only illustrations of ^qfV^w 

(Dharma Parinama) for here there is no radical change in 

the elements themselves. The appear- 

Dharma Parinama anee O f qua ]ities being due only to the 

of mind and the 

senses. different arrangement of the atoms 

of the five gross elements. This change 
applies to the Visheshas only the five gross elements 
externally and the eleven senses internally. How the inner 
microcosm, the Manas and the senses suffer this ^^nrft^jT*! 
we shall see hereafter, when we shall deal with the psy- 
chology of the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine. For the 
present it will just suffice here to say that the Chitta also 
suffers this change and is modified in a twofold mode ; 
the patent in the form of the ideas and the latent, as the 
substance itself in the form of Sanskaras or impressions. 
Thus the W9 says : f^^^j ^ Wt: 

Suppression, characterization potentialisation, constant 


change, life, movements, power are the characteristics of 
the mind besides consciousness. 

This wqfouw as we have shown it, is essentially differ- 
ent from the ^m^nr^^ of the Avisheshas which we 
have described above. This discussion about the evolution" 
we cannot close without a review of the Sankhya view of 

We have seen that the Sankhya Patanjala view holds 
that the effect is already existent in the cause but only in 
a potential form. "The grouping or collocation alone 
changes and this brings out the manifestation of the latent 
powers of the Gunas but without creation of anything 
absolutely new or non-existent." This is the true ^r<r^n*zhn? 
theory as distinguished from the so-called ^rT^rtsrai^ theory 
of the Vedantists which ought more properly to be called the 
^r^F^T 5 ? theory, for with them the cause alone is true, 
and all effects are illusory, being only impositions on 
the cause. For with them the material cause alone is 
true whereas all its forms and shapes are only illusory 
n^T?*tf!i fa^nft *rm?i ^f^f^n ?fa qj ^rw i Whereas according 
to the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine all the appearances or 
effects are true and they are due to the power which the 
substance has of transforming of itself into those various 
appearances and effects sffarai^fcssn ntfw& w:. The operation 
of the concomitant condition or efficient cause serves only 
in effectuating the passage of one thing from potency to 

Everything in the phenomenal world is but a special 
collocation of the Gunas ; so that the change of colloca- 
tion explains the diversity of the 
All change ultimately fchiugt. Considered from the point of 

reducible to the collo- 
cation of the Guuas. view of the Gunas, as the things are all 

the same, so excluding that, the cause 
of the diversity in things is the power which the Gunas 


have of changing' their particular collocations and thus as- 
suming various shapes. We have seen that the Prakriti 
unfolds itself through various stages the Mahat called 
the great being the Ahankara, the Tanmatras called the 
Avisbeshas, the five gross elements and the eleven senses, 
called the Visheshas. Now the Linga at once resolves itself 
into the Ahankara and through it again into the Tanmatras. 
The Ahankara and the Tanmatras again resolve themselves 
into the senses and the gross elements and these again are 
constantly suffering thousand modifications called the 
TO, ^^w, .'sra^n qfanr according to the definite law of 
evolution ( qfarWsfi*T f*RTfl). 

Now according to the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine, the 
$akti power, force, and the Saktiman the possessor of 

power or force are not different but 
Sakti ami SaktimSn, identical. So the Prakriti and all its 

emanations and modifications are 
of the nature of substantive entities as well as power or 
force. Their appearances as substantive entities and as 
power or force are but two aspects and so it will be erro- 
neous to make any such distinction as the substantive 
entity and its power or force. That which is the sub- 
stantive entity is the force and that which is the force 
is the substantive entity. Of course for all popular pur- 
poses we can indeed make some distinction but that dis- 
tinction is only relatively true. Thus when we say that 
earth is the substantive entity and the power which it has 
of transforming itself into the produced form, lump or 
jug as its attribute, we see on the one hand that no dis- 
tinction is really made between the appearance of the 
earth as jug and its power of transforming itself as 
the jug. As this power of transforming itself into 
lump or jug, etc., always abides in the earth we say that 
the jug, etc., are also abiding in the earth, when the 


power is in the potential state, we say that the jug 
is in the potential state, and when it is actualised, we 
say that the jug has been actualised. Looked at from 
the Tanmatrie side the earth and all the other gross ele- 
ments must have to be said to be mere modifications and 
as such identical to the power which the Taumatras 
have of changing itself into them. The potentiality or 
actuality of any state is the mere potentiality or actuality 
of the power which its antecedent cause has of trans- 
forming itself into it. 

Looked at from this point of view it will be seen 

that the Prakriti though a substantial 

Prakriti viewed as entity is yet a potential power which 

potentiality and ac- j s b em g actualised as its various mo- 
tuahty and conserva- 
tion of energy. dih'cations as the Avisheshas and the 

Visheshas. Being of the nature of 

po ver, the movement by which it actualises itself is im- 
manent within itself and not caused from without. The 
operation of the concomitant conditions is only manifested 
in removing the negative barriers by which the power was 
stopped or obstacled from actualising itself. It being of 
the nature of power, its potentiality means that it is kept 
in equilibrium by virtue of the opposing tendencies that 
are inherent within it, which serve as one another's ob- 
struction and are therefore called the *fiwr *u%. Of course 
it is evident that there is no real or absolute distinction 
between TiwwsiftK and ^nsta^t ufa ; they may be called so 
only relatively, for the same tendency which may appear 
as the ^n^^irsif^T of some tendencies may prove as the 
4W$qrl srfifi elsewhere. The example that is chosen to ex- 
plain the nature of the Prakriti and its modifications con- 
ceived as power tending towards actuality from potentiality 
in the ssn^nz? is that of a sheet of water enclosed by tem- 
porary walls within a field but always tending to run out 


of it. As soon as the temporary wall is broken ill some 
direction, the water rushes out itself, and what one has to do 
is to break the wall at a particular place. The Prakriti 
also is the potential for all the infinite diversity of things 
of the phenomenal world, but the potential tendency of 
all these mutually opposed and diverse things cannot be 
actualised all at once. By the concomitant conditions 
when the barrier of a certain tendency is removed, it at 
once actualises itself into its effect and so on. 

From any cause we can expect to get any effect, only 
if the necessary barriers can be removed, for everything 
is everything potentially, it is only 
necessary to remove the particular 
barrier which is obstructing the power from actualiz- 
ing itself into that particular effect towards which it is 
always potentially tending. Thus Nandi who was a man 
is at once turned into a god for his particular merit which 
served to break all the barriers of the potential tendency 
of his body towards becoming divine, so that the barriers 
being removed the potential power of the Prakriti of his 
body at once actualises itself into the divine body. 

The Vyasa Bhashya mentions four sorts of concomit- 
ant conditions which can serve to break the barrier in a 
particular way and thus determine the 
Coucomitaut Can- mode or form of the ac tualisations of 


the potential. There are (1) f*i place, 
(2) ^rw time, (3) ^nwK form and constitution of a thing ; 
thus from a piece of stone, the shoot of a plant cannot 
come out, for the arrangement of the particles in stone is 
such that it will oppose and stand as the barrier of 
its potential tendencies to develop into the shoot of a plant ; 
of course if these barriers could be removed, say by the 
will of God, as Vijnana Bhikshu says, then it is not impos- 
sible that a shoot of a plant may come out of a piece of 



T By the will 
of God poison may be turned into nectar and nectar into 
poison . 

According to the Sankhya Patanjala theory ^ merit 

oan only be said to accrue from those actions which lead to a 

man's salvation and ^cqw from the 


When it is said that these can remove 
the barriers of the Prakriti and thus determine its modifica- 
tions it amounts almost to saying that the modifications of 
the Prakriti are being regulated by the moral conditions of 
man. According to the different stages of man's moral 
evolution, different kinds of merit W or ^n*V accrue and 
these again regulate the various physical and mental 
phenomena according to which a man may be affected 
either pleasurably or painfully. It must however 
be always remembered that the ^4r and ^yft are also 
the productions of Prakriti and as such cannot affect 
it except by behaving as the cause for the removal 
of the opposite obstructions the ^4r for removing 
the obstructions of WJJT and wfr of w. Vijnana 
Bhikshu and Nagesha agree here in saying that the 
modifications due to >Hf and ^^ are those which 
affect the bodies and senses. What they mean is 
possibly this, that it is W or ^^ alone which guides 
the transformations of the bodies and senses of all living 

beings in general and the Yogis. 
Continued. Thus we see that Nahusha's *nHf 

or demerit stopped the fillings of the 

materials of his heavenly body from the five gross elements 
and those of his heavenly senses from the Ahankara. W 7 e 
find in another place that Vachaspati gives the example 


ijng^Tifpf *f^ (tho virtuous enjoys happiness) as an illus- 
tration of frfa^l or cause of ^ and wfr as controlling 
the course of the development of Prakriti. We therefore 
see that the sphere of tffr (merit) and ^nf^r (demerit) 
lies in the helping of the formation of the particular 
bodies and senses (from the gross elements and 
Ahankara respectively) suited to all living beings 
according to their stages of evolution and their 
growth, decav or other sorts of their modifications as 
pleasure, pain and as illness or health also. Thus 
it is by his particular merit that the Yogi can get his 
special body or men or animals can get their new bodies 
after leaving the old ones at death. Thus Yoga Varttika 
says " Merit by removing the obstructions of demerit 
causes the development of the body -and the 


i and Nagesha says : 

i Later on he sas aain < 

As for Iswara I do not remember that the *nsrefTC or the 

Sutras ever mention him as having anything to do in 

the controlling of the modifications 

ISwara. o f the Prakriti by removing the 

barriers, but all the later commentators 

agree in holding him responsible for the removal of all 

barriers in the way of Prakriti's development. So that 

Iswara lies as the root cause of all the removal of barriers 
including those that are effected by v*s and ^wif. Thus 
*n^9?f?r says t^r^nfq wtfayRre sft^iqsTsf ?3 SIFTF: i.e. god 
stands as the cause of the removal of such obstacles in the 
Prakriti as may lead to the production of merit or demerit, 

Yoga Varttika and Nagesha agree in holding Iswara 
responsible for the removal of all obstacles in the way of 
the evolution of Prakriti 

It is on account of god that we can do good or bad 
actions and thus acquire, merit or demerit. Of course 

God is not active and cannot cause any motion in Prakriti. 
But he by his very presence causes the obstacles, as the 

barriers in the way of Prakriti's development to be 
removed in such a way that he stands ultimately responsible 
for the removal of all obstacles in the way of Prakriti's 
development and thus also of all obstacles in the way of 
men's performance of good or bad deeds; Man's good or 
bad deeds gig"!*^ or *tg<i?}ff* , w or ^w serve to remove 
the obstacles of the Prakriti in such a way as to result in 
pleasurable or painful effects : but it is by god's help 
that the barriers of the Prakriti are removed and it 
yields itself in such a way that a man may perform the 
good or bad deeds according to his desire. Nilkantha 
however by his quotations in explanation of 300/2, $anti- 
parva leads us to suggest that he regards god's will as 
wholly responsible for the performance of our good or 
bad actions. For if we lay stress on his quotation v$ ^ai 

fi^tafa, it appears that he whom God wants to 
raise is made to perform good actions and he whom 
God wants to throw downwards is made to commit bad 
actions. But this will indeed be a very bold idea as it 
will nullify even the least vestige of the freedom and 



responsibility of our actions and is unsupported by the 
evidence of other commentators Vijnana Bhikshu also says 
with reference to this firuti in his Vijfianamrita Bhashya III. 

; So we take the Wrfr*Hcn of Iswara only in a 
general i 'way to mean the help that is offered by Him in 
removing the obstruction of the external world in such a 
way that it may be possible for a man to practically 
perform the meritorious acts in the external world. 

Nilkantha writes thus : 

Qnotetion from Nil- 


*ra: ^ftic^ fH t fafaTf' Hnsqiqww 


In support of our view we also find that it is by god's 
influence that the unalterable nature 

in t^UnLL IWara of the *teraal world is held fast and 

a limit imposed on the powers of 

man in producing changes in the external world. Thus 


Vachaspati in explaining the TM says f 

Man may indeed acquire unlimited powers of producing 
any changes they like, for the powers of objects as they 
are changeable according to the difference of class, space, 
time and condition, are not permanent, and so it is proper 
that they should act in accordance with the desire of the 
Yogi ; but there is a limitation on their will by the com- 
mand of god thus far and no further. 

Another point in our favour is this that the Yoga 
philosophy differs from the Sankhya mainly in this that 
the Purushartha or serviceability to the Purusha is only the 
aim or end of the evolution of Prakriti and not actually the 
agent which removes the obstacles of the Prakriti in such a 
way as to determine its course as this cosmical process of 
evolution. Purushartha is indeed the aim for which the 
process of evolution exists ; for this manifold evolution 
in all its entirety affects the interests of the Purusha 
alone ; but that does uot prove that this its teleology 
can really guide the evolution in its particular lines so 
as to ensure the best possible mode of serving all the 
interests of the Purusha, for this teleology being 
immanent in .the Prakriti is essentially non-intelligent. 
Thus Vachaspati says: ^ 

The Sankhya however hopes that this immanent 
teleology in Prakriti acts like a blind instinct and is able 
to guide the course of its evolution in all its manifold 
lines in accordance with the best possible service of the 

The Patanjala view, as we have seen, maintains that 
Iswara removed all obstacles of Prakriti in such a wav 


that this teleology may find scope for its realisation. 

Thus Sutrarthabodhiui of Narayana 
Continued. Tirtha says : According to atheistic 

Sankhyathe future serviceability of 
the Purusha alone is the mover of the Prakriti. 
But with us theists the serviceability of the Purusha 
is the object for which the Prakriti moves. It is 
merely as an object that the serviceability of the 
Purusha may be said to be the mover of the Prakriti. 

IV 3. 

As regards the connection of wfa and f^: however, 
both Saokhya and Patanjala agree according to Vijnana 
Bhikshu in denying the interference of Iswara ; it is 
the movement of Prakriti by virtue of the immanent 
teleology that connects itself naturally to the Purusha 

^^ i ( 
1,12. P. 34) 

To recapitulate, we see that there is an immanent 
teleology in the Prakriti which connects it with the 

Purushas. This teleology is however 
Recapitulation. blind and cannot choose the suitable 

lines of development and cause the 

movemeot of the Prakriti along them for its fullest 

realisation Prakriti itself though a substantial entity- 

is also essentially of the nature of conserved energy 

existing in the potential form but always ready to flow 

out and actualise itself only if its own immanent obstruc- 

tions are removed. Its teleology is powerless to remove 

its own obstruction. God by his very presence removes 

the obstacles, by which the Prakriti of itself moves in the 

evolutionary process and thus the teleology is realised ; 

for, the removal of obstacles by the influence of god takes 


place in such a way that the teleology may get its fullest 
scope of realisation Realisation of the teleology means 
that the interests of the Purusha are seemingly affected 
and the Purusha appears to see and feel in a manifold way 
and after a long series of such experiences it comes to 
understand itself in its own nature and this being the last 
and final realisation of the teleology of the Prakriti with 
reference to that Purusha all connections of the Prakriti 
with such a Purusha at once ceases ; the Purusha is then said 
to be liberated and the world ceases for him to exist, though 
it exists for the other unliberated Purushas, the teleology 
of the Prakriti with reference to whom have not been real- 
ised. So the world is both eternal and non-eternal i.e. 
its eternality is only relative and not absolute ( *w 

V: n IV.33.) 


The Yoga philosophy has essentially a practical tone 

and its object consists mainly in demonstrating the means 

of attaining salvation, oneness, the 

Ethical enquiry liberation of the Pnrusha. The 

the chief aim of the 

Yoga Philosophy. metaphysical theory which we have 

discussed at some length though it is 
the basis which justifies its ethical goal is not itself the 
principal subject of Yoga discussion. It only mentions it 
incidentally so far as it becomes necessary for it, in demons- 
trating its ethical views. We had first to explain the meta- 
physical theory, only because without understanding that, it 
was impossible for us to get a right conception of their 
ethical theories. It has now become time for us to direct 
our attention towards the right comprehension of the ethical 
theories of this philosophy. Chitta or mind always 
exists in the form of its states which are called its VrittiK. 
These comprehend all the manifold states of consciousness 


of our phenomenal existence, and we cannot distinguish 
the states of consciousness from 

Cliitta. . . | ( . ,. ,i 

consciousness itself, tor the conscious- 
ness is not something separate from its states ; 
it exists in its states and passes away with their 
passing and submerges when they are submerged. 
It differs from the senses in this that they represent the 
functions and faculties whereas Chitta stands as the 
entity holding the conscious states with which we are direct- 
ly concerned. But the Chitta which we have thus described 
as existing only in its states is called the fil^rf^ or f^ff 
as effect as distinguished from the ^nTirf^ff or farf as cause. 
These Karana Chitta or Chittas as cause are all-pervading 
like the Akasa and are infinite in number, each being 
connected with each of the numberless Purushas or 
souls (" ^ ^ fart ^n5qfansjiitrT[ 

and also ( f^f*t^ fafi wff)rttifiyii*iwl < yc^ifi gfc|Jr^rR ; ?t ^ ) 

<^i V. 10.") The reason assigned for acknowledging such 

a Karana Chitta which must be all 

Reasons for ack- ' 

nowledging a Kfimna pervading, as is evident from the 

quotation, is that the Yogi can have 
the knowledge of all things all at once. 

Vachaspati also says that this Chitta being essentially 
of the nature of ^wir is as all-pervading as the ego 
itself ( i 

This Karana Chitta contracts or expands and appears 

Relation of the as our '"dividual Chittas in the 

Karana Chitta & various kinds of our bodies at the 
Karya Chitta. 

successive rebirths. The Karaiia 
Chitta is always connected with the Purusha and 
appears contracted when the Purusha presides over the 


animal bodies and as relatively expanded when he 
presides over human bodies and more expanded when he 
presides ever the bodies of gods etc. This contracted or 
expanded Chitta appears as our 3Hifa^ which always 
manifests itself as our states of consciousness. After death 
the Karana Chitta which is always connected with the 
Purusha manifests itself in the new body which is formed 
by the ^\^ (filling in of ggffa on account of effective merit 
or demerit that the Purusha had apparently acquired. 
The formation of the body as well as the contraction or 
expansion of the Karana Chitta as the corresponding; 
fndjfari to suit it is due to this ^I|T. The Yoga does not 
hold that the fafi has got a separate fine astral body within 
which it may remain encased and may be transferred along 
with it to another body at rebirth after death. The Chitta 
being all-pervading, it appears at once to contract or expand 
itself to suit the particular body destined for it by its 
merit or demerit but there is no separate astral body. 
) *n^rfa. IV. 10. In reality the 
as such always remains faf or all pervading; it is 
only its ^n^ff^T? or ffa that appears in a contracted or 
expanded form, according to the particular body which it 
may be said to occupy. 

The Sankhya view however does not regard the Chitta 
to be essentially faf but small or great 

ttenkhva view of according as the body it has to occu- 

py fl|?n: flfag^ps 

faff fff snIT^q fcn^fl^TOZWtsT Tfiftq^l 

^ g faj t ( *n5N IV. 10. ) 

IV. 10. ) 

It is this f^ffi which appears as the particular states 

of consciousness in which there 

The nature of ChittH. 

are both the kuower and the known 


reflected, and it comprehends them both in one state 
of consciousness. It must however bo remembered 
that this Chitta ( fa*l ) is essentially a modification of 
Prakriti and as such is non-intelligent; but by the seeming 
reflection of the Purusha it appears as the knower who 
is knowing certain object, and therefore we see that 
in the states themselves are comprehended both the knower 
and the known. This Chitta is not indeed a separate 
Tattwa, but is the summed up unity of the 1 1 senses and 
the eo and also the five Pranas 

(fiita V. 10.) It thus stands for 
all that is Psychical in man ; the states of consciousness 
including the living principle in man represented by the 
activity of the five Pranas. 

It is the object of the Yoga to restrain the Chitta gra- 
dually from its various states and thus 

Ksrana and Karya gradually cause it to turn back to its 
Chittas. J . 

oriinal cause the ^nr<ufa^ which is 

all-pervading. The modifications of the ^nT^feiTT into the 
states as the ^n^rfa^T is due to its being overcome by its 
inherent Tarnas and Rajas ; so when the transformations of 
the Chitta into the passing states are arrested by concent- 
ration, there takes place a backward movement and the all- 
pervadiug state of the Chitta being restored to itself and all 
Tamas being overcome, the Yogi acquires omniscience and 
finally when this Chitta becomes as pure as the form 
of Purusha itself, the Pur isha becomes conscious of him- 
self and is liberated from the bonds of the Prakriti. 

The Yoga philosophy in the first chapter describes 
the Yoga for him whose mind is inclined towards 
trance-cognition. In the second chapter, is described the 
means by which one with an out-going mind (*i3ni f^r) mav 
also acquire Yoga. In the third chapter are described 
those phenomena which strengthen the faith of the Yogi 


on the means described in the second chapter. In the 
fourth chapter is described the Kaivalya, absolute inde- 
pendence or oneness which is the end of all the Yoga 

The HW describes the five classes of Chittas and 
comments upon their fitness for the 

Who are fit for Y oga leading to Kaivalya. Those 

are I. f%F ( wandering ) II i$% ( for- 
getful ) III. faf%H ( occasionally steady ) IV. <cr^TRj ( one 
pointed ) ft^s 1 ( restrained ). The fanfa'ri is characterised 
as wandering, because it is being always moved by 
the Rajas. This is that Chitta which is always moved to 
and fro by the rise of passions, the excess of which may 
indeed for the time overpower the mind and thus generate 
a temporary concentration, but it has nothing to do with 
the contemplative concentration required for attaining 
absolute independence. The man far from attaining 
any mastery of himself is rather a slave to his own 
passions and is always being moved to and fro and 
oscillated by them. (See fafW ^fe^n 1.1. Htofffi 1.2.) 
II. The ?|;sfa3 is that which is overpowered by Tamas, 
or passions like that of anger etc. by which it loses its 
senses and always chooses the wrong course : ( fainTT ^f*5^n 
1.1 ^t^jirf^T 1.2.) Swarni Harihararanya suggests a beauti- 
ful example of concentration in this state as in the case 
some kinds of snake who become completely absorbed 
in the prey they are ready to pounce upon. 

III. The ftf^ra feri or distracted or occasionally 
steady chitta is that mind which rationally avoids the 
painful actions and chooses the pleasurable ones. Now 
none of these three kinds of mind can hope to attain that 
contemplative concentration called Yoga. This last type of 
mind represents the ordinary people who are sometimes 
tended towards.good and are again drawn towards evil. 


IV. One pointed ( *WW ) is that kind of mind in 
which true knowledge of the nature of reality is brought 
before the mind and thereby the afflictions due to 
Nescience or false knowledge are attenuated and the 
mind thus becomes favourable for attaining the 

or restrained state. All these come under the 


V. The Nirodha or the restrained mind is that in 
which all the mental states are arrested. This leads to 

Ordinarily our minds are engaged only in perception, 

inference etc., all those mental states which we all 

naturally possess. These our ordinary 

When Samftdhi mental states are full of Rajas and 
comes. .. 

lamas. When the process ot our 

ordinary mental states is arrested, the mind flows with 
an abundance of ^r in the UW Sarnadhi ; lastly when 
even the ^flUffi state is arrested, all possible states 
become arrested thereby. 

Another important fact which must be taken note of 
is the relation of the actual states of mind called the 
Vrittis with the latent states called 
Vritti & Samskara. the Samskaras the potency. When 
a particular mental state passes away 
into another, it is not altogether lost, but is preserved in 
the mind in a latent form as Samskaras which always 
are trying to manifest themselves in the actual form. 
The \rittisor actual states thus are at once generating 
the Samskaras and they also are always tending to mani- 
fest themselves and actually generating similar Vrittis or 
actual states. There is a circulation from Vrittis to 
Samskaras and from them again to the Vrittis ( 

So, the formation of Samskaras and their conservation 


are gradually being strengthened by the habit of similar 
Vrittis or actual states, aud their continuity is again 
guaranteed by the strength and continuity of these Saras- 
karas. The Samskaras are like the roots stuck deep in the 
soil which grow with the growth of the plant above, but 
even when the plant above the soil is destroyed the 
roots remain undisturbed and may again shoot forth as 
plants whenver they may get a favourable season. 
So, for a Yogi, it is not enough, if he arrests any particular 
class of mental states but he must attain .meh a habit 
of hi* restraint that the Sauaskara generated by his habit 
of restraint must l>e so strong as to overcome, weaken 
and destroy the Sanskara of those actual states which he 
has arrested by his contemplation. Unless by such a 
habit, the Sanskara of restraint ( ftfttnr ^nT ) which is 
opposed to the Sanskaras of the restrained mental states 
become powerful and destroy the latter, the latter is 
sure to shoot forth again in favourable season into their 
corresponding actual states. 

The conception of Avidya or Nescience here is not nega- 
tive but it has a definite positive aspect. It means that kind 
of knowledge which is opposed to true 

AvidyS. knowledge ( fapsnfaqrtfT ^n^W<*tf*KJT ) 

This is of four kinds (1) the thinking 

of the non-eternal world which is merely an effect as 

eternal ; (2) the thinking of the impure 

II. as the pure as for example the passions 

and the attractions that an woman's 

body may have for a man through which he thinks the im- 
pure body of the woman as pure. 
1H. (3) This also explains the thinking of 

vice as virtue, of the undesirable as the 

desirable ; and the thinking of pain as pleasure ; we know 
that for a Yogi every phenomenal state of existence 


is painful 

A Yogi knows that attachment TTJI to sensual and 
other objects can only give temporary pleasure for it is 
sure soon to be turned into pain. Enjoyment can never 
bring satisfaction, but only drags a man further and 
further into sorrows. 

(2) Again at the time of enjoying 1 pleasures there 
is always seen also the suffering from pain in the form 
of aversion to pain ; for the tendency of aversion from 
pain can only result from the incipient memory of 
previous sufferings. Of course this is also qfow?:*iraT, 
but it differs from the former in this that in the case of 
qftiFW *HsT (Pleasure turned into pain) pleasure is turned 
into pain as a result of change or Parinama in the future 
whereas in this case the anxiety of pain is a thing of 
the present, happening at one and the same time that 
a man is enjoying a pleasure. 

Enjoyment of pleasure or .suffering from pain causes 
their impressions called *fan?; or potencies and these again 

when helped by associations naturally 
Painfulnesa by L 

SanskSras. create their memory and thence 

comes attainment or aversion, whence 
follows action, whence pleasure and pain and whence impres- 
sions, memory, attachment or aversion and again action 
and so forth. 

All states are the modifications of the three Gunas ; 
in every one of them the functions 

Pain due to the f n ,, 

contrariety of and tne three (.Tunas are seen 

f Which al ' e contar y to one another. 
These contraries are remarkable in 
their developed forms and these Gunas are seen to 
abide in various proportions and compose all our mental 


states. Thus it is seen that a Yogi who wants to 
be released from pain once for all is very sensitive 
and is anxious to avoid even our so-called pleasures. 
) see II. 1 "> ( 

fcfT q 


4TC^ T^r't w^iF 1 ^ffciqqt i ) The wise have in this 
case a similarity to the eye-ball. As a thread of wool 
thrown into the eye pains by a mere touch, but not so by 
corning 1 into contact with any other organ, so do these 
afflict the Yogi who is as tender as the eye-ball, but not 
any one else whom they reach. As to others, however, who 
have again and again taken up pains as the consequence of 
their own karma, and who again took it up after having 
given it up, who are all round pierced through as it were 
by Nescience, possessed as they are of a mind full of 
afflictions, variegated by eternal residua of passions, who 
follow in the wake of the " I " and the " Mine " in rela- 
tion to things that should be left apart, the three-fold 
pain caused by both external and internal means run after 
them as they are repeatedly born. The Yogi then seeing 
himself and the world of living beings thus surrounded 
by the eternal flow of pain, turns for refuge to right 
knowledge, the cause of the destruction of all pains. 

The thinking of the mind and body and the objects 
of the external world as the true self and to feel affected 
by their change is what is called Aviclya. 

The modifications that this Avidya suffer may be col- 
lected under four heads. (I) The 

Avidya of how e -j O wn ieh as described above springs 
many kinds. 

from the identification of the ff% with 

the Purusha. 


II. From this ego springs TIT or attachment which is] 
the inclination towards pleasure aid consequently towards 
the means necessary for attaining it for a person who has 
previously experienced pleasures and remembers them. 

IV. Repulsion from pain also springs from the ego 
and is of the nature of anxiety for its removal; anger 
at pain and the means which brings in pain, Clicks 
in the mind in consequence of (he feeling of pain, in the 
case of him who has felt the pain and has the memory 
of it. 

V. Love of life also springs from the ego. It is the 
feeling that exists in all persons and appears in a posi- 
tive aspect in the form " May I live on " and in a negative 
aspect in the form " would that I were never to cease ". 
This is due to the painful experience of death at some 
previous state of our existence, which exists in us as a 
residual potency ( ^Wft ) and causes the instincts of self- 
preservation and fear of death and love of life. These 
are called the five Kleshas or afflictions. 

Now we are in a position to see the far-reaching 

effects of the identification of the Purusha with the iff 

We have already seen how it has 

efft>dT dya a " d its S enerate <' the Macrocosm or the exter- 
ior world on the one hand, and v^ 
and the senses on the other. Now we see that from it 
also springs attachment to pleasure, aversion from pain and 
the love of life, motives which are seen in most of our 
states of consciousness, which are therefore called the farer 
or the afflicted states. The five afflictions just men- 
tioned are all comprehended in Avid v a, since Avidya or 
false knowledge is at the root of all the five afflictions. 
The sphere of Avidya is all false knowledge generally, 
and that of Asmita is also inseparably connected with 
all our experiences which consists in the identification 


of the intelligent; self with the sensual objects of the world, 
the attainment of which seems to please us and the loss of 
which is so painful to us. It must however be remem- 
bered that these five afflictions are only the different 
aspects of ^ifsRii and cannot be conceived separately from 
the Avidya. These always lead us into the meshes of the 
world, far and far away from our h'nal goal the realisation 
of our own self the emancipation of the Purusha. 

Opposite to it are the Vrittis or states which are called 

^iffre unafflicled, the *WJ (habit of 
f ho Akhshta steadiness) and Yairagya, which being 

antagonistic to the afflicted states, are 
helpful towards achieving the true knowledge or its means 

( nf ). These represent such thoughts 
that tend towards emancipation and are produced from 
our attempts to conceive rationally our final state of 
emancipation, or to adopt suitable means for it. They 
must not however be confused with ^^jw^r' (virtuous action), 
for both Punya and Papa Kartna are said to have sprung 
from the Kleshas. There is no hard and fast rule with regard 
to the appearance of these Klishta and Aklishta states, so 
that in the stream of the Klishta states or in the intervals 
thereof, Aklishta states also might come as the practice 
and desirelessness born by the study of the Veda, reasoning 
and precepts ( 

and remain unmixed with the Klishta states quite distinct 
in itself. A Brahmin being in the village of Sala which 
is full of the Kiratas, does not become a Kirata himself 
by that. 

Kach Aklisbta state produces its own potency or J-NfiT*: 
and with the frequency of the states, their limvt is strength- 
ened which in due course by habituation suppresses the 
Aklishta ones. 


These Klishta and Aklishta modifications are of five 
descriptions RWU ( Real cognition ) ftqdre ( unreal eogui- 
tion ) ft^'S (logical abstraction and imagination ) fagT 
( sleep )ifri (memory). These Vrittis or states however 
must be distinguished from the six 
The five Vrittis. kinds of mental activity mentioned 
in (II. 18) ?ni (reception or presen- 
tative ideation) tm<Q (retention) t^ (representative idea- 
tion) ^refe (conceptual selection) ^WSTTT (right knowledge) 
ffafstfw (decision and determination) of which these states 
are the products. 

We have seen that from Avidya springs all the Kle- 

shas or afflictions which are therefore seen to be the source 

of the Klishta Vrittis as well. Abhy- 

Avidya, Kleshaa & sa, Vairagva the Akl ishta Vrittis, 
SanskSras. \ 

which spring from precepts &c. lead 
to right knowledge and as such are antagonistic to the 
modification of the Gunas on the Avidya side. 

We know also that both these sets of Vrittis the 
Klishta and the Aklishta produce their own kinds of 

Sanskaras, the Klishta Sauskara and 

Vrittis and Sans- the Aklishta or PrainS (inn) Sanskara. 

All these modifications of Chitta as 

Vritti and Sauskara are the Dharmas ( ^ ) of Chitta, 
considered as the wf or substance. 

These Vrittis are also called the flips' 3i*& as different 

from the *n^r=fi*fr achieved in the exterior world by the 

five motor or active senses. These 

Karmas. may be divided into four classes (I) 

Krishna (black) (2) Sukla (White) (3) 

Sukla- Krishna ( white and black) ( I) Asukla Krishna 

(neither white nor black). The Krishna Karma are those 

committed by the wicked and as such, are wicked actions 

called also ^*W (demerit). These are of two kinds viz: 


and JTPW the former being of the nature of spea- 
king ill of others stealing other's property etc. ( ftpz\ tTT^T- 
^ITT^tfa ^ ) and the latter of the nature of such 
states as are opposed to Sraddha, Virya etc. which are 
called the ukla Karma, (<rf?qfto *reifc ^ crsw). The 
Sukla Karmas are the virtuous or meritorious deeds. 
These can only happen in the form of mental states 
and as such can take place only in the ^rra ?w. These 
are Sraddha, Virya, Smriti, Sainadhi and Prajna 
which are infinitely superior to actions achieved in 
the external world by the motor or the active senses 

i cwifffj ^ffa: i ^rsi : STITTPH f?r 


the Sukla Karma belongs to those who resort to study 
and meditation ( T&R'W. *nmni3pT*RTHi ) ( ; 3) The 
Suklakrishna Karma are the actions achieved in the 
external world by the motor or active senses. These 
are called white and black, because actions achieved 
in the external world however good ( W ) they might 
be, cannot altogether be devoid of wickedness ( 9^ ) 
For all external actions entail some harm to other living 
beings qsn^fT ^fV.^r^sra' cm: ^wife ^^f^cr 'ftfi T f% 

Even the Vaidika duties though they are meritorious 
are associated with sins as they entail the sacrificing of 
animals ( ^rtCtwifa ffsre^tV^ ^^r^ era f^^fat nftr^ 
vs i ^^T^^T: ^^fr^K: swwl: q^fsi^r ) i 

The white side of these actions viz : that of helping 
others and doing good is therefore called W^ as it is 
the cause of the enjoyment of pleasure and happiness 
for the doer. The Krishna side of these actions 
viz : that of doing injury to others is called W*f as it 


is the cause of the sufferings of pain for the doer. As in 
all our ordinary states of existence we are always under 
the influence of W and ^^ which are therefore called 
(vehicles of actions) ^wg:*nifr% ^TSTft^nf^^l *u%^ ?fa **W. I 
That in which some thing lives is its vehicle. Here the 
Purushas in evolution are to be understood as living in 
the sheath of actions (which is for that reason called a 
vehicle orww). Merit or virtue, and sin or demerit are the 
vehicles of actions. All Sukla Karma therefore, either 
mental or external, is called merit or virtue and is pro- 
ductive of happinees, all Krishna Karma either mental 
or external is called demerit, sin or vice and is productive 
of pains. 

The Karma called Asukla Krishna ( neither black nor 
white) is of those who have renounced everything, whose 
afflictions have been destroyed and whose present body 
is the last one they will have ( '^npnfi'^T **nf%Tf ^twntr 
'ST'^^TTt i ) Those who have renounced actions, the 
Karma Samnyasis) (and not those who belong to the 
Samnyasasrama merely) are nowhere found performing 
actions which depend upon external means. They have 
not got the black vehicle of actions, because they do not 
perform such actions. Nor do they possess the white vehicle 
of actions, because they dedicate to Iswara the fruits of 
all vehicles of action brought about by the practice of Yoga. 
Taking the question of Karmasaya again for review, 
we *ee that being produced from desire *n* avarice 3to 

ignorance ifa? and anger afa it has 
Se reall * v S ot t its root the Kleshas 
passions. (afflictions) such as Avidya, Asmita, 

Raga, Dwesha, Abhinivesa. It will 
be seen easily that the passions named above, desire, lust, 
etc. are not in any way different from the Kleshas or 
afflictions named before ; and as all ae ti ons virtuous or 


sinful have their springs from the said sentiments of 
^rw, *ta, ^tw *ft^, it is clear enough that all these 
virtuous or sinful actions spring forth from the Kleshas. 
Now this Kartnasaya ripens into life-state, life ex- 
perience and life time, if the roots 
Ripening of the the afflictions exist. Not only is it 

Karmasaya and the . 

afflictions. true tnat when the afflictions are 

rooted out, no Karmasaya can accu- 
mulate but even when many Karmasayas of many lives 
are accumulated they are rooted out when the afflictions are 
destroyed. For, otherwise, it is difficult to conceive that 
the Karmasaya accumulated for infinite number of years, 
whose time of ripeness is uncertain, will be rooted out ! So 
even if there be no fresh Karmasaya after the rise of true 
knowledge, the Purusha cannot be liberated but shall be 
required to suffer an endless cycle of births and rebirths 
to exhaust the already accumulated Karmasayas of endless 
lives. For this reason, the mental plane becomes a field 
for the production of the fruits of action only, when it is 
watered by the stream of afflictions. Hence the afflic- 
tions help the vehicle of actions ( ^rofara ) in the pro- 
duction of their fruits also. It is for this reason that 
when the affliction;* are destroyed the power which helps 
to bring about the manifestation also disappears ; and on 
that account the vehicles of actions although existing, 
being innumerable and having no time for their fruition 
do not possess the power of producing fruit, because their 
seed powers are destroyed by his intellection, (jnjtgnsr). 
Karmasaya is of two kinds (1) Ripening in the same 
life (F^5!ii%^t?T) (2) Ripening in 

Kavmasaya divided ther nnknown Hf e . That Puiiya 

into two classes ac- 

oordinp to its time of Karmasaya which is generated by 
ripen inp. . . 

intense purmcatory action, trance 

and repetition of Mantras and that Papa Karmaeaya 


which is generated by repeated evil done to men who are 
suffering the extreme misery of fear, disease and helpless- 
ness or to those who place confidence or to those who are 
high-minded and perform Tapas, ripen into fruit in that 
very life, whereas other kinds of Karmasayas ripen into 
fruit in some unknown life. 

The living beings in hell have no Drishta Jauma 

Karmasaya, for, that life is intended 
Lives which possess . . 

no Drishta Janma tor sufferance only and their body is 
Vedaniya Karmasaya. called the Bhoa ^.^ intended for 

the sufferance alone and not for accumulating any Karma- 

saya the effect of which they could meet in Hiat very life. 

There are others whose afflictions have been spent up and 

exhausted and they have thus no such 

Who have no Adrish- Karmasaya the effect of which they 

ta Janma Vedaniya . 

Karmasaya. will have to reap m some other lite. 

They are thus said to have no Adrishta 
Jauma Vedaniya Karma. 

The Karmasaya of both kinds described above ripens 

itself into the life-state, life time 
_The effect of Karma- and iif e _ ex perience. These are call- 

ed the three ripenings or Vipakas 
of the Karmasaya ; and they are conducive of pleasure or 
pain according as they are the products of Punyakarma- 
saya virtue (or Papa Karmasaya) vice or demerit. ( ?N>^- 
qRcmniHl H"mH*9itg5rm ) Many Karmasayas combine to 
produce one life state ; for it is not possible that each 

Karma should produce one or many 

Jati, Ayush and lif e . states f or then there wou l d be HO 

possibility of experiencing the effects 

of the Karmas, because if for each one of the Karmas we 
have one or more lives, then there being endless Karmas, 
there would be no room for getting lives for experiencing 
the effects, and there will be no certainty of getting the 


effects in a certain life for it may take endless time to 
exhaust the Karmas already accumulated. It is therefore 
held that many Karmas unite to produce one life state 
or birth and determine also its particular duration of life 
( ^nfr ) and the experiences (Bhoga). The virtuous and 
sinful Karmasayas accumulated in cne life, in order to 
produce their effects, cause the death of the individual 
and manifest themselves in producing the birth of the 
individual, his duration of life and particular experiences, 
pleasurable or painful. The order of undergoing the 
experiences is the order in which the Karmas manifest 
themselves as effects, the principal ones being manifested 
earlier in life. The principal Karmas here refer to those 
which are too ready to generate their effects. Thus it is 
said that those Karmas which produce their effects imme- 
diately are called primary whereas those which produce 
effects after some delay are called secondary ( ^sf^^l^- 
*HrHfR w$ sTsfa <ra n^rtf ?m faf%fe!i5rr rifqw^ ). We see 
thus that there is a continuitv of existence all through; 

/ O ' 

when the Karmas of this life ripen jointly they tend to fruc- 
tify themselves- by causing another birth as a means where 
to, death is caused, and along with it life is manifested 
in another body (according to the Dharma and Adharma 
of the WJTTars ) formed by the wsng* ( cf. the Chitta theory 
related before ) ; and the same Karmasaya, regulates the 
life period and the experiences of that life, the Karmasayas 
of which life again take a similar course and manifest 
themselves in the production of another life and so on. 

We have seen that the Karmasaya has three fructi- 
The Ekabhalnka "Cations, viz : Sflfr ^ and k. Now 

unigenital; Karma- generally the Karmasaya is regarded 
s-aya and the Aneka. ' . . . 

bhabika ( muiti-geni- as ftkabhabika or unigemtal, i.e. it 

tal) Vasans. accumulates in one life. Ekabhaba 

means one life and Ekabhabika means the product of one life, 


or accumulated in one life ^gwTttfossi wf). Regarded 
from this point of view it may be contrasted with the 
Vasanas which remain accumulated from thousands of 
previous lives from eternity and the mind pervaded all over 
with them is like a fishing net covered all over with knots. 
This Vasana results from a memory of the experiences of 
a life generated by the fructification of th Karmasaya 
and kept in the Chitta in the form of potency or impres- 
sions ( ^r'^in: ). Now we have seen before, that the Chitta 
remains constant iu all the births and rebirths that an 
individual has undergone from eternity ; it therefore keeps 
the memory of those various experiences of thousands of 
lives in the form of Sanskara or potency and is there- 
fore compared with a fishing net pervaded all over with 
knots. The Vasanas therefore are not the results of the 
accumulation of experiences or the memory of them 
of one life but of many lives and are therefore called 
ifita'ttftfi as contrasted to the Karmasaya representing 
the virtuous and vicious actions which are aacumulated 
in one life and which produce another life, its experiences 
and its life duration as a result of fructification ( ftmro ). 
This vasana is the cause of the instinctive tenden- 
cies, or habits of deriving pleasures and pains peculiar to 
different animal lives. 

Thus the habits of a dog-life aud its peculiar modes 
of taking its experiences and of deriving pleasures and 
pains are very different in nature 
from those of a man-life; and must 
therefore be explained on the basis of 
an incipient memory in the form of potency, or impressions 
( 'iK ) of the experiences that an individual must have 
undergone in a previous dog-life, of its own. 

Now when by the fructification of the Karmasaya a 
doglife is settled on a person, at once his corresponding 


Vasanas of a previous dog-life are revived and he begins 
to take interest in his dog-life in the 

The manifestation manner of a dog ; the same principle 
of the Vasauati accor- ' .... 

ding to the par- applies to the virtue of individuals 
ticular fructification j / 

of the Karmaeaya. as men or as g ds ' ( 

t ) IV. 8. 

If there was not this law of Vasanas then any VSsana 
would be revived in any life, and with the manifestation 
oftheVasana of animal life, a man would take interest 
in eating grass and derive pleasure from it. Thus 
Nagesa says : Now if those kartnas which produce a 
a man life would manifest the vasanas of animal lives 
then one might as a man be inclined to eat grass and 
it is therefore that it is said that only the vasanas corres- 
ponding to the karmas are revived. ( r^i 

Now as the Vasanas are of the nature of Sanskaras 

or impressions, they lie ingrained in the chitta and no 

hindrance is possible towards their 

Yftsaniis heiner of i i 

the nature of Sans- "W revived on account of their 

ksras is Rimilar to being intervened by other births. It 
memory . 

is therefore that the Vasanas of a 

dog-life are at once revived in another dog-life, though 
between the first- dog-life and the second dog-life, the 
individual might have passed many other lives, say that 
of a man, a bull etc. and though the second dog-!ife may 
take place many hundreds of years after the first dog-life 
and in quite different countries. The difference between 
Sanskaras, impressions and Smriti or memory is simply 
this that the former is the latent state whereas the 
latter is the manifested state ; so we see that the memory 
and the impressions are identical in nature, so we see that 
whenever a Sanskara is revived, it means nothing but 


the manifestation of the memory of the same experiences 
conserved in the sanskara in a latent state. Experiences 
when they take place, keep their impressions in the mind, 
and may be intervened by thousands of other experiences 
lapse of time etc., but they are revived with the proper 
cause of their revival in a moment, and the other inter- 
vening experiences can in no way hinder their revival, So 
it is with the Vasanas too, which are revived in no time 
according to the particular fructification of the Karma- 
saya in the form of a particular life, as a man, or a dog, 
or any thing else. 

It is now clear that the Karmasaya tending towards 

fructification is the cause of the manifestation of the 

Vasanas already existing in the mind 

KarmSsaya are the [ n a latent form. Thus the Sutra 
cause of fch manifes- . 

tation of the Vsnauns. says : When two similar lives are 

intervened by miny births, long 
lapses of time and remoteness of space even then 
for the purpose of the revival of the Vasanas they may 
be regarded as immediately following each other, for 
memories and impressions are the same (Sutra IV. 9). 
The Bhashya says : the Vasana is like the memory 
(Smriti) and so there can be memory from the impressions 
of past lives intervened by many lives and by remote 
tracts of country. Prom these memories there are 
again the impressions (Sanskaras), so the memories are 
revived by manifestation of the karmasayas, so since 
there may be memories from past impressions inter- 
vened by many lives, these interventions do not destroy 
the causal antececedence of those past lives, ( 


These Vasanas are however beginningless since we see 
that a baby even shortly after its birth is seen to feel 

instinctively the fear of death, which 
^The beginningless ^ con}d ^ ^ ^.^ fnm ^ 

experience of this life. Thus we see 
that if a small baby is thrown upwards it is seen to shake 

and cry like a grown-up man and 

The beginning- from thig it be i n f erred t h at 

lessness of these 

Vasanas or innate it is afraid of falling down on the 
memories. , , . , c , . . 

ground and is therefore shaking 

through fear. Now this baby has never in this life learnt 
from experience that a fall on the ground will cause pain, 
for it has never fallen down on the ground and suffered 
pain therefrom ; so the cause of this fear cannot be sought 
in the experiences of this life but in the memory of past 
experiences of fall and pain arising therefrom, which is 
innate as Vasana in this life and thus causes this instinc- 
tive fear. So this innate memory which causes this 
instinctive fear of death from the very time of birth has 
not its origin in this life but it is the memory of the 
experiences of some previous life, and in that life also it 
existed as innate memory of some other previous life and 
in that also as the innate memory of some other life and 
so on to beginningless time. And this goes to show that 
these Vasanas are without any beginning. 

Now coming to the question of the unigenitality Eka- 
bhabikatwa of the Karmasaya and 

of the reading of the confusion has occurred among the 

commentators about the following 

passage in the Bhashya which refers to this subject: 

The *TTO sas : trw 



aud smN take the reading to be 
etc., whereas Vachaspati takes the reading quoted 
before ; there is thus a divergence of meaning on this point 
between Yoga Varttika and bis follower Nagesa on 
one side and Vachaspati on the other. 

Vachaspati says that the Drishtajanma vedanlya (to be 

fructified in the same visible life) 
Vachaspati. Karma is the only true Karma where 

the Karmasaya is Ekabhabika unigeni- 
tal, for here these effects are positively not due to the 
Karma of any other previous lives but are due to the 
Karma of that very life. So these only are the true causes 
of Ekabhabika Karmasaya 

Thus according to Vachaspati we see that the Adrishta 
Janma Vedanlya Karma (to be fructified in another life ) 
of unappointed fruition is never an ideal of Ekbhabikatwa 
or unigenital character ; for it may have three different 
courses : (1) It may be destroyed without fruition. (2) It 
may become merged in the ruling action. (3) It may 
exist for a long time overpowered by the ruling action 
whose fruition has been appointed. 

Vijfiana Bhikshu and his follower Nagesha, however, 
says that the Drisbta Janma Vedanlya 
Karn ( to be fructified in the same 
visible life) can never be Ekabhabika 
or unigenital for there is no Bhaba, or previous birth there, 
whose product is being fructified in that life, for this 
Karma is of that same visible life and not of some other 
previous Bhaba or life ; and they agree in holding that 
Jt is for that reason that the Bhashya makes no mention 
of this Drishtajanma Vedanlya Karma ; it is clear that 
the Karmasaya in no other Bhaba is being fructified here. 


Thus we see that about 
Drishta Jaurnavedaniya Karma, Vachaspati holds that it 
is the typical ease of Ekabltabika Karma (Karma of the 
same birth) whereas Vijnana Bhikshu holds just the 
opposite view, viz., that the Drishtajanmavedaniya Karma 
should not at all be considered as Ekabhabika since there 
is no *r* here or birth, it being fructified in the same life. 
The Adrishta Janma Vedaulya Karma (works to 
be fructified in another life) of 
Adrishtajanma Veda- unttpp oi n ted fruition has three 

niya Karma. 

different courses (I) As we have 

observed before by the rise of Asukla Krishna (neither 
black nor white) Karma the other Karmas Sukla, Krishna 
and Suklakrishna are rooted out ; The 'Sukla Karmasaya 
again rising from study and asceticism destroys the Krishna 
ones without their being able to generate their effects. These 
therefore can never be styled as Ekabhabika since they are 
destroyed without producing any effect. '(I!) When the 
effects of minor actions are merged into the effects of 
the major and ruling action and the sins originating 
from the sacrifice of animals at a holy sacrifice are sure to 
produce bad effects though they may be minor and small 
in comparison to the good effects rising from the perform- 
ance of the sacrifice and these are merged along with it, 
Thus it is said that the experts being immersed in lakes of 
happiness brought about by their sacrifices bear gladly 
particles of the fire of sorrow brought about by the sins of 
killing animals at sacrifice (TSW % H^rewtta^flS^jw 

>T^ ). So we see 

that here also the minor actions having been performed 


with the major do not produce their effects inde- 
pendently and so all their effects are not fully manifested 
and hence these secondary Karmasayas cannot be regarded 
as Ekabhabika (wft 

(Ill) Again the Adrishta Janma Vedaniya Karma (to 
be fructified in another life) of unappointed fruition 
fafara foqw) remains overcome for a long time by another 
Adrishta Janma Vedaniya Karma (to be fructified in 
another life) of appointed fruition. A man for example 
may do some good actions and some extremely vicious 
actions, so that at the time of death, the Karmasaya of 
those vicious actions becoming ripe and fit for appointed 
fruition generate an animal life, then his good actions 
whose benefits are such as may be reaped only in a man-life 
will remain overcome until the man is born again as a 
man : so this also cannot be said to be Ekabhabika (to be 
reaped in one life). We may summarise the classification of 
Karrnas according to Vachaspati in a table as follows : 

Ekabhabika Anekabhabika 

Niyata Vipaka Aniyatavipaka 

(of appointed fruition). | 

| Adrishtajanma Vedaniya 

Drishtajanma Adristhtajanma- 
vedaniya vedaniya 


inflwsrnnwFT Tro*rr*wirffcrifT 

(Destruction) (Merged in the ( To remain 

effect of the overcome by 

major action.) the influence 

of some other 



Thus the Karmasaya may be viewed from two sides, 
one being that of appointed fruition and the other un- 
appointed fruition, and the other that of Drishtajanma 
Vedanlya and Adrishta Janma Vedaniya. Now the theory 
is that the Niyata Vipaka (of appointed fruition) Karmasaya 
is always Ekabhabika, i.e., it does not remain intervened 
by other lives, but directly produces its effects in the 
succeeding life. 

Ekabhabika means that which is produced from the 
accumulation of Karmas in one life in the life which 
succeeds it. Vachaspati however takes it also to mean 
that action which attains fruition in the same life that it 
is performed whereas what Vijnana Bhikshu understands 
by Ekabhabika is that action alone which is produced in 
the life immediately succeeding the life in which it was 
accumulated. So according to Vijiiana Bhikshu, the Niyata 
Vipaka (of appointed fruition) Drishta Janma Vedanlya 
(to be fructified in the same life) action is not Ekabhabika, 
since it has no Bhaba, i.e., it is not the production of a 
preceding life. It cannot be Anekabhabika also, so we 
see that this Niyata Vipaka Drishta Janma Vedaniya 
action is neither Ekabhabika nor Anekbhabika. Whereas 
Vachaspati is inclined to call this also Ekabhabika. 
About the Niyata Vipaka Adrishta Janma Vedaniya 
action being called Ekabhabika (unigenital) there seems 
to be no dispute. The Aniyata Vipaka Adrishtajanma 
vedanlya action cannot be called Ekabhabika as it 
undergoes three different courses described above. 

We have described Avidya and its special forms as the 

Kleshas, from which also proceed the actions faffr) 

virtuous and vicious (fif, *hHi) 

Review of Avidya. which in their turn again produce 

as a result of their fruition, nf?T, ^g 

and Htj? and the Vasanas or the residues of the memory of 


these experiences. Attain every new life or snfa is produced 
from the fructification of actions of a previous life ; a man 
is made to perform actions good or bad by the Kleshas 
which are rooted in him, and these actions as a result of 
their fructification produce another life and its experiences, 
in which life again new actions are earned by virtue of the 
Kleshas and thus the cycle of life is continued anew. When 
there is ww or involution of the cosmical world process 
the individual Chittas of the separate Purushas, return back 
to the Prakriti and lie within it, together with their own 
Avidyas and at the time of each new creation or evolution 
of the world these are created anew with such changes as 
are due according to their individual Avidyas, with which 
they had to return back to their original causes, the 
Prakriti and spend an undividable inseparable existence 
with it. (The Avidyas of some other creation being 
merged in the Prakriti along with the chittas, remain in 
the Prakriti as Vasanas and Prakriti being under the 
influence of these Avidyas as Vasanas create the correspond- 
ing Buddhis for the individual Purushas which were 
connected with them before the last Pralaya dissolution) 

So we see 

that though the Chittas had returned to their original causes 
with their individual ^fren Nescience, the Avidya was not 
lost but at the time of new creation it being revived created 
such Budd his as might be suitable receptacles for it. These 
Buddhis are seen again to be modified further into their 
specific Chittas or mental planes by the name Avidya 
which then is manifested in it as the Kleshas and these 
again in the Karmasaya, Jati, Ayush and Bhoga and so 
on ; the individual however is just in the same position as he 
was or would, have been before the involution or Pralaya. The 
Avidyas of the Chittas which had returned to the Praktftr 


at the time of the creation being revived created their own 
Buddhis of the previous creation and by their connection 
with the individual Purushas are the causes of the 
Sansara or the cosmic evolution the evolution of the 
microcosm, the Chittas and the macrocosm or the exterior 

In this new creation the creative agencies of God and 
Avidya, are distinguished in this that 


the latter represents the end or teleo- 
logy of the Prakriti the ever-evolving energy transform- 
ing itself into its modifications as the mental and the 
material world, whereas the former represents that intelli- 
gent power which abides outside the pale of Prakriti, but 
which removes the obstructions offered by the Prakriti, 
herself ; being unintelligent and not knowing where and 
how to yield so as to form the actual modifications neces- 
sary for the realisation of the particular and specific objects 
of the numberless Purushas, these Avidyas hold within 
themselves the gwra or serviceability of the Purushas, 
and are the cause of the connection of the Purusha and 
the Prakriti (cffi^grf^n) so that when these Avidyas 
are rooted out it is. said that the Purusartha or the service- 
ability of the Purusha is at an end and the Purusha be- 
comes liberated from the bonds of the Prakriti and this is 
called the final goal of the Purusha. 

The ethical problem of the Patanjala philosophy is 

the uprooting of this Avidya by the attainment of true 

knowledge of the nature of the Puru- 

The Ethical Pro- fa which wi]1 bfj suceeede j b v the 

liberation of the Purusha and his abso- 
lute freedom or independence Kaivalya which is the last 
realisation of the Purusha the ultimate goal of all the 
movements of the Prakriti. 


This final uprooting of the Avidya with its Vasanas 
directly follows the attainment of true knowledge called 
the Prajna in which state the seed of 
false knowledge is altogether burnt 
and cannot be revived again. Before this state, the dis- 
criminative knowledge which arises as the recognition of 
the distinct natures of the Purusha and Buddhi remains 
shaky, but when by continual practice, this discriminative 
knowledge becomes strengthened in the mind, its potency 
gradually grows stronger and stronger, and roots out the 
potency of the out-going states of activity (sasnr ^T*) 
and thus the seed of false knowledge becomes burnt up 
and incapable of fruition, and the impurity of the 
energy of Rajas being removed, the Sattwa as the mani- 
festing entity becomes of the highest purity and in that 
state flows on the stream of the notion of discrimination 
the recognition of the distinct natures of the Purusha and 
the Buddhi free from impurity. Thus when in this way 
the state of Buddhi becomes almost as pure as the Purusha 
itself, all self-enquiry subsides, the vision of the real form 
of the Purusha arises and the false knowledge together 
with the consequent Kleshas, and the consequent fruition 
of actions, cease once for all. (<T<r. w spr*iifr?fa;) This 
is that state of Chitta which far from tending towards 
the objective world tends towards the Kaivalya of the 

In the first stages when the mind attains the discrimi- 

native knowledge but the Praina is 

not deeply seated, and occasionally the 

phenomenal states of consciousness are seen to intervene in 
the form of " I am," " Mine," " I know," " I do not know," 
because even then, the old potencies though becoming 
weaker and weaker are not finally destroyed and conse- 
quently occasionally produce their corresponding conscious 


manifestation as states which are seen to intervene the flow 
of the discriminative knowledge (fff?H flsigi^^fa *3RiW.) 
but constant practice to root out the {>oteucy of this state 
destroys the potencies of the outgoing states of activity, 
and finally no intervention occurs in the flow of the stream 
of Prajna by the destructing influence of the phenomenal 
states of consciousness. In this higher state of mind in 
which the mind is in its natural, passive, and objectless 
stream of flowing Prajna, it is called the wft^jtnfa. 
When one does not want to get anything from Dhyana even, 
there rises the true knowledge which distinguishes thj 
Prakriti from the Purasha and is called the Dharmamegha 
Samadhi. (n^i^RTf^te^ *r*ren M^?n^: Wfo: *nfa:) 
IV. 29. The potency however of this state of consciousness 
lasts until the Purusha is finally liberated from the bonds 
of Prakriti and is absolutely free (ti^rat). Now this is 
the state when the Chitta becomes infinite and all its Tamas 
being finally overcome it shines forth like the sun, which 
can reflect all, and in comparison to which the crippled 
insignificant light of objective knowledge shrinks altogether 
and thus an infinitude is acquired which has absorbed 
within itself all finitude, which therefore cannot have any 
separate existence or manifestation from this infinite know- 
ledge. All finite states of knowledge are only a limitation 
on the true infinite knowledge, in which there is no limita- 
tion of this and that. It absorbs within itself all these 
limitations (rRi s^sK^^fT^ tnT^TR'BJT^ %9*rero). 

The Purusha in this state may be said to be Jivan- 
mukta. ?ra ^fa'imTsHsjTOt ^ 

Jivanmukta state. r _ _ __ . _ 




IV. 31.) x 

Now with the rise of such W^r the succession of 
the changes of the qualities is over, in as much as they 
have fulfilled their object, by having achieved experience 
and emancipation, and their succession having ended, they 
cannot stay even for a moment (era: ficn^sft qfrwnfiflmfa: 
^WHT^). And now comes absolute freedom when the Gunas 
return back to the Pradhana their primal causes, after 
performing their serviceability for the Purusha by finishing 
the experience and the salvation of the Purusha, so that 
they lose all their hold on the Purusha and the Purusha 
remains as it is in itself, and there is never again any 
connection of it with the Buddhi. The Purusha remains 
always ever in himself in his own absolute freedom. 

The order of the return of the Gunas for a Kevali 
Purusha, is described below in the words of qw*qfa, 
" ^nsrartwa^nft qinft *j 'JniHflTfafsrcfaswnr. *i*rf% ^Mr w: 
^ftwwm, sfarn fair , fer^faip i (The Gunas as cause and 
effect involving ordinary experiences, Samadhi and 
Nirodha become submerged in the Manas ; the Manas 
becomes submerged iu the Asmita, the Asmita in the 
Lmga and the Linga in the Alinga.) 

This state of Kaivalya must be distinguished from the 
state of Mahapralaya in which also 

the GunM retum back to th * Prakriti, 
for that state is again succeeded by 
later connections of Prakriti with Purushas through the 


Buddhis but the state of Kaivalya is an eternal state which 
is never again disturbed by any connection with Prakriti 
for now the separation of the Prakriti with the Purusba 
is an eternal one, whereas that in the Mahapralaya state 
is only a temporary one. 


We finished this section after noting the two kinds 

of eternality, of the Purusha and of the Prakriti and a 

review of the Prajfia state. The 

Eternality of the f ormer j s ca ]\ e( i perfectly and un- 
the Purusha and the 
Prakriti. changeably eternal, f z^f t^si and the 

latter is only eternal in an evolu- 
tionary form. The permanent or eternal reality is that 
which remains unchanged with its changing appearances; 
and from this point of view both Purusha and the Prakriti 
are eternal. It is indeed true as we have seen just now 
that the succession of changes of qualities with regard to 
Budclhi, etc., comes to an end when the Kaivalya is 
attained, but this is with reference to the Purusha, for 
the changes of qualities in the Gunas themselves never 
come to any end. So the Gunas in themselves are eternal 
in this their changing or evolving character, and are 
therefore said to possess evolutionary eternity qfr*mfafai?n i 
Our phenomenal conception cannot be free from changes 
and it is therefore that in four conception of the released 
Purushas also, we affirm their existence, as for example 
when we say that the released Purushas exist eternally. 
But it must be carefully noted that this is due to the 
limited character of our thoughts and expressions and not 
to the real nature of the released Purushas which remain 
for ever unqualified by any changes or modifications, pure 
and colourless as the very self of shining intelligence 
(see IV. 33). 

We shall now conclude this section after giving a 
short analysis of the Prajfia state from its first appear- 
ance to the final release of the Purusha 
Prajfia stage. from the bondage of the Prakriti. 

Patanjali thus says that this Prajfia 
state being final in each stage is sevenfold (<w W*l fl^jfa: 
JRJT). Of these the first four stages are due to our 


conscious endeavour and when these conscious states 
of Prajna flow in a stream and are not hindered or inter 
vened in any way by other phenomenal conscious states 
or Pratyayas (nra) the Purusha becomes finally libera- 
ted through the natural backward movement of the Chitta 
to its own primal cause and this backward movement is 
represented by the other three stages. 

The seven Prajna stages may thus be enumerated : 

I. The pain (ef. II. 15) to be removed is 

known. Nothing further remains to 

Seven stages of the 

Prajna. be known of it. 

This is the first aspect of the Prajna in which the 
person willing to be released knows that he has exhausted 
all that is knowable of the pains. 

II. The cause of the pains has been removed and 
nothing further remains to be removed of it. This is the 
second stage or aspect of the ascension of trai. 

III. The nature of the extinction of pain has already 
been perceived by one in the state of Hnfa, so 
that I have come to learn that my final extinction of pain 
will be something like it. 

IV. The final discrimination of Prakriti and Purusha, 
the true and immediate means of the extinction of pain 

has been realised. 

After this stage nothing remains to be done by the 
Purusha himself. For this is the attainment of the final 
true knowledge or cramf. It is also called the Para 

Vairagya. It is the highest con- 
The end of the , i . , , i ^, i 

dntiee of the Purusha. summation in whicli the Purusha has 

no duties to perform. This is there- 
fore called the Karya Vimukti (or salvation depending on 
the endeavour of the Purusha) or Jivanmukti. 

After this follows the Chitta Vimukti or the process 
of release of the Purusha from the Chitta, in three stages. 

7 O 


V. The rspect of the Buddhi which has finally 
finished its services of the Purusha by providing scope of 
the Purusha's experiences and release ; so that it has 
nothing else to perform for the Purusha. This is, the 
first stage of the retirement of the Chitta. 

VI. No sooner as this state is attained like the 
felling of stones thrown from the summit of a hill, the 
Gunas cannot remain even for a moment to bind the 
Purusha but at once retire back to their primal cause, the 
Prakriti ; for the Avidya being rooted out there is no tie 
or bond which can hold it connected with Purusha and 
make it suffer changes for the service of the Purusha. 
All the Purushartha being finished the Gunas dis- 
appear of themselves. 

VII. The seventh and last aspect of the Gunas is 
that they never return back to bind the Purusha again, 
their teleology being fulfilled or realised. It is of course 
easy to see that in these last three stages the Purusha 
has nothing to do ; but the Gunas of their own nature 
suffer these backward modifications and return back to 
their own primal cause and leave the Purusha Kevall (for 
ever solitary). 

Vyasa says that as the science of medicine has four 

divisions: (1) disease, (2) the cause 

Four Divisions of o f disease, (3) recovery, (4) medi- 

the Yoga Philosophy. ' '. ' /-, v. u 

cines ; so this Yoga philosophy has 

also four divisions, viz. : (I) Sansara (the evolution of the 
Prakriti in connection with the Purusha). (II) The cause 
of Sansara (^Ktg). (HI) flta (release). (IV) *frftra (the 
means of release). 

Of these the first three have been described at some 

length above. We now direct our 
Means of release. . . ,, , A ,r , 

attention to the fourth. We have 

described above that the ethical goal, the ideal to 


realised, is the absolute freedom or Kaivalya and shall now 
consider the line of actions that is necessary to be adopted 
for this goal the summura bonum. All actions which 
tend towards the approximate realisation of this goal 
for man are called (^sra) Kusala and the man who 
achieves this goal is called (*Ji*r^) Kusall. " It is in Ihe 
teleology of Prakriti that man should undergo pains which 
include all phenomenal experiences of pleasures as wel 
and ultimately adopt such a course of conduct as to avoid 
them altogether and finally achieve the true goal, the 
realisation of which will extinguish all pains for him for 
ever. The motive therefore which prompts a person 
towards this ethico-metaphysical goal is this avoidance of 
pain. An ordinary man feels pain only in the actual 
pains but a yogi who is as highly sensitive as the eye-ball, 
feels pain in pleasures as well and therefore is determined 
to avoid all experiences, painful or the so-called pleasur- 
ables. The extinguishing of all experiences however is 
not the true ethical goal, being only a means to the 
realisation of the Kaivalya or the true self and nature of 
the Purusha in himself (^w?fa*). But this means repre- 
sents the highest end of a person, the goal beyond which 
all his duties cease ; for after this Kaivalya comes and 
manifests itself naturally, with the necessary retirement 
of the Prakriti. Purusha has nothing to do in effectuat- 
ing this state which comes of itself. The duties of the 
Purusha cease with the thorough extinguishing of all his 

CJ & O 

experiences. This therefore is the means of extinguishing 
all his pains which are the highest end of all his 
duties ; but the complete extinguishing of all pains is 
identical with the extinguishing of all experiences, the 
states or vrittis of consciousness and this again is identi- 
cal with the rise of P.-ajna or true discriminative know- 
ledge of the difference in nature of Prakriti and its 


effects from the Purusha the unchangeable. These three 
sides are only the three aspects of the same state which 
immediately precede Kaivalya. The prajna aspect is 
the aspect of the highest knowledge, the suppression of the 
states of consciousness or experiences aud it is the aspect of 
the cessation of all conscious activity and the aspect of 
painlessness or the extinguishing of all pains as the 
feeling aspect, of the same Nirvija (f-rffar) ^amadhi 
state. But when we direct our attention to this goal in 


our ordinary states of experience, we look at it from the 
side of the feeling aspect, viz., that of acquiring a state of 
painlessness and as a means of attaining it tries to purify 
the mind, be moral in all his actions and begins to res- 
train and suppress his mental states in order to acquire 
this Nirvija or the seedless state. This is the sphere of 
his conduct which is called Yogauga. 

Of course there is a division of duties according to 


the advancement of the individual 

Different Adhikaris. 

as we shall have occasion to show 

hereafter. This suppression of mental states ( 
which has thus been described as the means of attaining 
the final release, the ultimate ethical goal of life, is called 
Yoga (gtTf^Tlfaftffa:). We have said before that of 
the five kinds of mind fen, 33, ft fan, ^TO and freir only 
the last two are fit for the process of Yoga and ultimately 
acquire absolute freedom. In the other three though 
concentration may occasionally happen, yet there is no 
extrication of the mind from the afflictions of Avidya 
and consequently there is no final release. 

The Yoga which after weakening the hold of the 
afflictions and dawning the Real 

How Yoga leads to trut }, before our mental vision gra- 
g filiation. 

dually nears us towards the attain- 

ment of our final goal is only possible with the last two 

kinds of minds and is of two kinds : (1) Samprajnata 
(cognitive) and (2) Asanprajnata (ultra-cognitive). The 
Samprajnata Yoga is that in which the mind is concen- 
trated to some object external or internal in such a way 
that it does not oscillate or move from one object to 
another but remains fixed and settled in the object that 
it., holds before itself. At first the Yogi holds a gross 
material object before his view but when he can make 
himself steady in it, he tries with the subtle Tanmatras, the 
five causes of the grosser elements, and when he is success- 
ful in this he holds his internal senses as his object and last 
of all when he has found himself fully successful in these 
attempts, lie holds the great egohood as his object in which 
stage gradually his object loses all its determinate charac- 
ter and he is said to be in a state of suppression in 
himself, although devoid of any object. This state also like 
the previous other states of the Samprajnata type is a 
positive state of the mind and not a mere state of vacuity 
of objects or negativity (fsffRn^nsmsr^ ^f%5H<T^wf fafta:). 
In this state all determinate character of the states dis- 
appears and their potencies only remain alive. In the 
first stages of a Yogi practising Samadhi, often 
conscious states of the lower stages also sometimes 
intervene, but gradually as the mind becomes fixed, 
the potencies of the lower stages are overcome by the 
potencies of this stage, so that the mind flows in its calm 
current in this state of suppression and at last the higher 
Prajiia dawns, as a result of which the potencies or this 
state are also burnt and extinguished (frffsr) and the 
Chitta returns back to its own primal cause, Prakriti ; and 
the Purusha attains absolute freedom. 

The first four stages of the Samprajnata state 

\*$Sji are called Madhumati; Madhu 
state * Pratlka, Visoka and the Sanskarasesha 


and also Vitarkanugata, Vicharanugata Anandanugata and 
Asmitanugata. True knowledge begins to dawn from the first 
stage of this Samprajnata state, and when the Yogi reaches 
the last stage, the knowledge reaches its culminating point, 
but still so long as the potencies of the lower stages of 
relative knowledge remain, the knowledge cannot obtain 
absolute certainty and permanency, as it will always, 
become threatened by any possible encroachment by the 
other states of the past Vyutthana (phenomenal activity 
now existing as the sub-conscious). So the last stage of 
Asamprajnata Samadhi represents the stage in which 
the ordinary consciousness has been altogether surpassed 
and the mind is in its own true infinite aspect and 
the potencies of the stages in which the mind was 
full of finite knowledge are also burnt, so that with 
the return of the Chitta to its primal cause, the final 
emancipation is effected. The last state of Samprajnata 
Samadhi is called Sanskarasesha, only because here the 
residua of the potencies of sub-conscious thought only 
remain and the actual states of consciousness become all 
extinct. It is now easy to see that no mind which is not 
in the Ekagra or one pointed-state can be fit for the Asam- 
prajfiata Samadhi in which it has to settle itself on one 
object and that alone. So also no mind which has not 
risen up to the state of highest ftffa or suppression is 
fit for the Asamprajnata or the Nirvija state. 

It is now necessary to come down to a lower level and 

examine the obstructions on account 
Distractions. . 

ot which a mind cannot easily become 

one-pointed or Ekagra. These nine in number are the 
following : 

Disease, langour, indecision, want of having the mental 
requirements necessary for Samadhi, idleness of body and 
mind, attachment towards the objects of sense, false 



and illusory knowledge, non-attainment of the state of 
concentrated contemplation, unsteadiness and unstability 
of the mind in a Samadhi state even if it can anyhow 
attain it. These are again seen to be accompanied by pain, 
and despair owing to the non-fulfilment of desire. Physi- 
cal shakiness or unsteadiness of the limbs, taking in of 
breath and giving out of it. These are seen to follow the 
nine distractions described above of a distracted mind. 
To prevent these distractions and their accompaniments 
it is necessary that we should practise 

How to make the habituation on one truth. Vachaspati 
mind steady. . 

says that this one truth to which the 

mind should be settled and fixed was Iswara and Rama- 
nanda Saraswati and Narayana Tirtha agreed with him. 
Vijiiana Bhikshu however says that here by one truth 
any object gross or fine is intended (^nf^rf fa&fciT fTvT 
fi^T^wi farWSfm H^l H*I : W 5 ^ ) and Bhoja supports Vijnana 
Bhikshu and says that here " one truth " might mean any 
desirable object (^ffaifa^fVwi). 

Abhyasa means the steadiness of the mind in one state 
and not altogether absence of any state ; for the Bhashya- 
kara himself has said in the Samapattisutra, that Sampra- 
jnata trance, comes after this steadiness. As we shall see 
also hereafter, it means nothing but the application of the 
five means !raddba, Vlrya, Smriti, Samadhi and Prajiia ; 
it is an endeavour of setting the mind on one state, and as 
such does not differ from the application of the five means 
of Yoga with a view to settle and steady the mind (<T?f 
wfa*nfajFsn<ftat ^iswwt srtRRwgwrcwTS- 
H. fin , 1. 13). This effort becomes firmly- 
rooted, being well attended to for a long time without 
inte ruption and with devotion. 

Now whether this one truth is Iswara or any other 
object it does not matter very much ; for the true principle 


of Yoga is the setting of the mind on one truth, principle 
or object. But it is no easy matter to do it for an ordi- 
nary man ; for in order to do it successfully it is necessary 
that the mind should be equipped with Sraddha or faith 
the firm conviction of the Yogi in the course that he 
adopts. This keeps the mind steady, pleased, calm and 
free from doubts of any kind, so that the Yogi may proceed 
in the realisation of his object without any vacillation. 
Unless a man has a firm hold on the course that he pursue?, 
all the steadiness that he may acquire will always be 
threatened by the danger of a sudden collapse. It will 
be seen that Vaii-a^va or desirele*?ii3ss is oulv the 

&v * 

negative aspect of this Sraddha. For by it the mind is 
restrained from the objects of sense, with an aversion or 
dislike towards the objects of sensual pleasures and worldly 
desires ; this aversion towards worldly joys is only the other 
aspect of the faith of the mind and the calmness of its 
currents (the f^TT^w^T^) towards the right knowledge 
and absolute freedom. So it is said that the Yairagya 
is the effect of Sraddha and its product ^ng^nsrrrai 
w*?ra I. '20. fr5TTtfirg. In order to make a person suitable 
for Y'oga, Vairagya represents the cessation of the mind 
from the objects of sense and their so-called pleasures and 
Sraddha means the positive faith of the mind in the path 
of Yoga that it adopts, its right aspiration of attaining the 
highest goal of absolute freedom, and the fullest conviction 
of doubtlessness and calmness in it. 

In its negative aspect Yairagya is of two kinds Apara 

and Para. The Apara one is that of 

a mind free from attachment to per- 

ceptable enjoyments, such as women, foods, drinks and 

power and having no thirst for scriptural enjoyables, such as 

heaven. The attainment of the states of Videha and the 

Prakritilaya has when it comes into contact with such divine 


and worldly objects, a consciousness of its own, due to an 
understanding of the defects of those objects brought about 
by miraculous powers. This consciousness of power is the 
same as the consciousness of indifference to their enjoyment, 
and is devoid of all desirable and undesirable objects as 
such This Vairagya may be said to have four stages : (1) 
Yatamana in which the sensual objects are discovered to be 
defective and the mind recoils from it. ('2) Vyatireka in 
which the senses to be conquered are taken note of. (3) 
Ekendriya in which attachment towards internal pleasures 
and aversion towards external pains, being removed, the 
mindsets before itself the task of removing the attachment 
and aversion towards mental passions for getting honour 
or avoiding dishonour, etc. The fourth and the last, stage 
of Vairagya called Vaslkar is that in which the mind has 
perceived the futility of all attractions for external objects 
of sense and the scriptural objects of desire and having 
suppressed them altogether the mind does not feel 
attached, even if it any how comes in connection with them. 
With the consummation of this last stage of Aparar 

Vairagya, comes the Para Vairagya 
Apara Vairagya. . 

which is identical with the rise or 

the final Prajna leading to absolute independence. This 
Vairagya, Sraddha and the Abhyasa represent the 
unafflicted states (^fffreffa) which suppress gradually 
the Klishta or the afflicted mental states. These lead the 
Yogi from one stage to another, and thus he proceeds 
higher and higher until the final state is arrived. 

As Vairagya advances Sraddha also advances, from 
Sraddha comes Vlrya-energy, or the power or concentra- 
tion (*m*tn) and from it ' again 
dhLtc.^^ 8 ^" Brings Smriti-or continuity of one 
object of thought and from it comes 
Samadhior cognitive and ultra-cognitive trance, after which 


follows Prajna and the final release. Thus by the inclusion 
of Sraddha within Vairagya, its effect, and the other 
products of Sraddha with Abhyasa we see that the 
Abhyasa and Vairagya are the two internal means for 
achieving the final goal of the Yogi, the supreme 
suppression and extinction of all states of consciousness, 
of all afflictions and the Avidya the last state of supreme 
knowledge or Prajfia (^wretwiwt <Tf?rcta: i). 

As Sraddha, Vlrya, Smriti, Samadhi which are not 
different from Vairagya and Abhyasa, 

^ ( they being ttl * V their ther as P ecfs 
or simultaneous products) are the 

means of attaining Yoga, it is possible to make a classifi- 
cation of the Yogis according to the strength of these 
with the Yogi, and the strength of the quickness (*tr) 
'with which they may be applied towards attaining 
the goal of the Yogi. Thus the Yogis are of nine 
kinds : 

(1) of mildly energetic means, (:i) of means of medium 
energy, (3) of means of intense energy. 

Each of these may vary according to the mildness, 
medium state, or intensity of the quickness or readiness 
with which the Yogi may apply them. Thus there are 
nine kinds of Yogis. Of these the best Yogi is he who is 
tfbreRllfVwfalTC; i.e., whose mind is most intensely engaged 
and whose practice is also the strongest. 

There is a difference of opinion here about the meaning 
of the word ^tn, between Vachaspati and Vijnana Bhikshu. 
The former says that S3*r means ITTOT here, but the latter 
holds that q%i\ cannot mean Vairagya and the Vairagya 
being the effect of the Sraddha cannot be counted separately 
from; it. " Samvega " means quickness in the performance 
of the means of attaining Yoga ; some say that it. means 
" Vairagya." But that is not .true for if .Vairagya 


is an effect of the due performance of the means of Yoga 
there cannot be the separate ninefold classification of Yoga 
apart from the various degrees of intensity of the means of 
Yoga practice. The word " Samvega " etymological ly does 
not mean " Vairagya " also. 

We have seen just now that Sraddha, etc., are the 

means of attaining Yoga, but we have not discussed what 

purificatory actions must an ordinary 

Parikarmas and man perform in order to attain Si addha 

Kriya Yogas. 

from which the other requisites may 

also spring up. Of course these purificatory actions are 
not the same for all persons for they must necessarily 
depend upon the conditions of purity or impurity of each 
mind ; thus a person who is already in an advanced state 
may not require the performance of those purificatory 
actions which will be necessary for a man of lower state. 
We have said just now that the Yogis are of nine kinds, 
according to the strength of their mental acquirements, 
Sraddha, etc. the requisite means of Yoga and the 
strength of the quickness with which they may be 
applied. Neglecting the division by the strength or 
quickness of application along with these mental require- 
ments we may divide the Yogis again into three kinds : 
(1) Those who have the best mental acquirements 
(3*?*nfwift). (2) Those who are mediocres. (#) Those 
who have low mental acquirements. 

In the first chapter of the Yoga aphorisms it has 
been said that Abhyasa, the application of the mental 
acquirements of Sraddha, etc., and Vairag)a,the consequent 
cessation of the mind from objects of distraction, 


lead to the extinction of all our mental states and of 
final release. When a man is well developed he may 
rest contented with his mental actions alone, in his 
Abhyasa and Vairagya, in his Dharana (concentration), 
Dhyana (meditation), and Samadhi (trance), which may 
be called the Jnanayoga. But it is easy enough to 
perceive that this Jnanayoga requires very high mental 
powers and so it is not within the easy reach of ordinary 
persons. Ordinary persons whose minds are full of 
impurities must pass through a certain course of 
purificatory actions, before they can hope to obtain 
those mental acquirements by which they can hope to 
follow the course of Jnanayoga with facility. 

These actions which remove the impurities of the mind, 
and thus gradually increase the lustre of knowledge until 
the final state of supreme knowledge can be acquired are 
called Kriyayoga. They are also called Yogangas as they 
help the maturity of the Yoga process by gradually 
increasing the lustre of knowledge. They represent the 
means by which even an ordinary mind (ftfaHfVri) may 
gradually purify the mind and make it fit, for the highest 
ideals of Yoga. Thus the Bhashya savs BV the 

V */ 4/ 

sustained practice of these Yogangas or accessories of 
Yoga is destroyed the five-fold unreal cognition (^ftsn) 
which is of the nature of impurity. Destruction means 
here disappearance, thus when that is destroyed, real 
knowledge is manifested. As the means of achieve- 
ment are being practised more and more, so is the 
impurity being attenuated more and more. And as 
more and more of it fS being destroyed, so also it goes 
on increasing more and more the light of wisdom 
following in the wake of destruction. This process 
reaches its culmination in discriminative knowledge 
which means that its highest culmination is in 


the knowledge of the nature of the Purusha and the; 

Gunas. -, . '::', 

Now the assertion that .these actions are the causes of 

the attainment of salvation, brings . the question pf the 

exact natures of their operations with 

Nature of the opera- regard to this supreme attainment. 

tion of the Y ogangas 

to bring salvation. Bhashyakar with respect to this 

question says that they are the causes 
pf the separation of the impurities of the mind just as an 
axe is the cause of the splitting of a piece of wood ; and 
again they are the causes of the attainment of the supreme 
knowledge just as TO is the cause of happiness and not in. 
any other way. It must be remembered that causation is 
viewed according to the Yoga theory as mere transforma- 
tions of energy ; the operation of concomitant causes is 
only by removing the obstacles which were impeding the 
progress of these transformations in a particular direction ; 
no.canse can of itself produce any effect and the only way 
in which it can help the production of this effect into 
which by the principles of conservation and transformation 
of energy, the causal state passes out of its own immanent 
energy is by removing the intervening obstacles. Thus 
just as the passage of Chitta into a happy state is helped 
by TO removing the intervening obstacles or his previous 
good actions by removing the obstacles, so also the 
passage of the Chitta into the state of the attainment of 
true knowledge is only helped by the removal of obstruc- 
tions due to the performance of the Yogangas ; the neces- 
sary obstructions being removed the Chitta passes natural Iv 
of itself into this infinite state of the attainment of true 
knowledge in which all finitude is merged. 

In connection with this, Bhashyakara mentions nine 
kinds of the operation of the causes: (1) as the cause 
of birth ; (i) of preservation : (3) of manifestation ; (4) 


of modification ; (5) of sequential cognition ; (6) of 
separation ; (7) of attainment ; (8) of differentiation ; 
(9) of upholding. 

The principle of conservation of energy and transforma- 
tion of energy being the root idea of causation in this 
system these different aspects represent the different points 
of view in which the word causation is generally used. 

Thus, the tirst aspect as the cause of birth or production 
is seen when for example, knowledge springs out of mind, 
so that the mind is called the cause of the birth of know- 
ledge. Here mind is the material cause ('Stn^TT ^TT^r) of 
the production of knowledge, for knowledge is nothing 
but mind with its particular modifications as states 

Its difference from ^Tfa^nr% which is not directly the 
cause of production, but serves to help it only in an 
indirect way by the removal of obstacles, is quite manifest. 
The f^afh^nr^ or the cause which makes things preserved 
as they are, is the end they serve ; thus the serviceability 
of the Purusha is the cause of the existence and preserva- 
tion of the mind as it is, and not only of mind but of all 
our phenomenal experiences. 

The third cause of the ^fasqfai ^ITIF or the cause of 
manifestation (which is compared to a camp which 
manifests things before our view) according to Bhikshu 
is an epistemological cause and as such, included among 
other things inferential cognition as well (the sight of 
smoke in the hill also falls under this) 

Then come the fourth and the 5th causes, of Vikara 
(change) and Anyatwa (otherness) ; thus the cause of 



change (ft*!*) is exemplified as being that which causes a 
change ; thus the mind suffers a change by the objects 

& " 

that are presented to it just as bile changes the raw food 
that is cooked by it ; the cause of ^51 (otherness) such 
as that brought about by a goldsmith in gold by making 
a bangle from it, and then again a necklace from it, is 
regarded as different from the change spoken of 
as Vikara. Now the difference between the gold being 
turned into bangles or necklaces and the raw rice being 
turned into soft rice is this that in the former case when 
bangles are made out of gold, the gold remains the same 
in each case, whereas in the case of the production of 
cooked rice from raw rice by fire the case is different, 
for heat changes paddy altogether for the paddy 
does not remain unchanged in its modification as rice ; 

sfa * t 

goldsmith, and heat both 
are indeed efficient causes, but the former only effects 
mechanical changes of shape and form only, whereas the 
latter heat is the cause of structural and chemical changes. 
Of course these are only examples from the physical world, 
their causal operations in the mental sphere vary in a 
corresponding manner ; thus the change produced in the 
mind by the presentation of different objects follows a 
law which is the same as is found in the physical world 
when the same object causes different kinds of feelings 
in different persons ; when Ignorance causes forgetfulness, 
in a thing anger makes the thing painful, and desire 
makes it pleasurable the knowledge of its true reality 
produces indifference ; there is thus the same and of causal 
change as is found in the external world. Then comes 
in for our consideration the cause of separation (Viyoga) 
which is only a negative aspect of the positive side of 


the causes of transformations, as in the gradual extinctions 
of impurities consequent upon the transformation of tha 
Chitta towards the attainment of the supreme state of 
absolute independence by discriminative knowledge. The 
last cause for consideration is the cause of upholding, 
(Dhrti) ; thus the body upholds the senses and supports them 
for the actualizations of their activities on the body just as 
the five gross elements are the upholding causes of the 
organic bodies ; the bodies of animals, men, etc., also adopt 
one another for their mutual support. Thus the human 
body lives by eating the bodies of many animals and the 
bodies of tigers etc., live on the bodies of men and other 
animals and so also many animals live on the bodies of 
plants, etc. 

i) The four kinds of causes that are 
mentioned in Sankara's works and grammatical commen- 
taries like that of: Sushena, riz,, : ^qTSJ, fosfn^i, ^W and 
'^ii4 are all included within those nine causes mentioned 
in this quotation of the Bhashyakara. 

The Yogangas not only remove the impurities of the 

mind, but help the mind by removing the obstacles to 

attain the highest perfection of 

The operation of discriminative knowledge. Thus thev 
the Yogangas. 

are the causes in a double sense 

(I) of the dissociation of the impurities (fw5)frn*n:fl) ; (2) 
of removing the obstacles which impede the course of the 
mind for attaining the highest development (^RTfowKir). 

Now coming to Yogangas, we see them enumerated 
as follows : ^lf^flTB^flTOTZfWfl?1?\T^TT^IJTiTJ1Ttf5(tS^n^iFT^ 

Restraint, Observance, Posture, Regula- 

tion of breath (qrorraw), Abstraction, 

Concentration, Meditation and Trance are the eight 
accessories of Yoga, 


It must be remembered that the Abhyasa and Vairagva 
and also the five means of attaining Yoga, viz., : *TfT. ^5i, etc., 
which are not different from Abhyasa and Vairagya, are 
by their very nature included within the Yoganga< 
mentioned above, and are not to be considered as 
independent means different from them (^n IfWHWT- 
ftertestfo zrarsNSfT 1 ^ *?np?3t Tr^rcta^frcT ^r^wfafarrsgT:). The 
Parikarmas or embellishments of the mind spoken of in 
first chapter which we shall deal later on are also included 
under the three Yogangas ^win, 1H and *nfa. The five 
means w, ^% ^fH. wifa and jpsn are said to be included 
under <re:, ^ren?r and i^cufa^ of the Niyamas and Vairitgya 

To understand these better it is better first of all to 

give the definitions of the Yogangas 

Their definitions. and then discuss about them and 

ascertain their relative values for a 

man striving after attaining the highest perfection of 


I. Yama Restraint twfistfjan^gir^sriqfcreTqfiT: 
These Yama restraints are : Abstinence from injury 
(Ahhtni); Veracity; Absinence from theft; continence; 
abstinence from avariciousness. 

II. Niyama Observances 

These observances are cleanliness, contentment, puri- 
ficatory action, study and the making of God the motive 
of all action. 

'III. Asanas Posture %Tgw*iSiTO steady posture and 
easy position <Tfa^ *fir ^Wsuj9tif?!f^ip<r. uwwm: i 

I\ . Regulation of breath (Prauayama) is the stoppage 
O f the inspiratory and expiratory movements (of breath) 


which may he practised when steadiness of posture has 
been secured. 

V. Pratyahara abstraction. 

Abstraction is that, by which the senses do uot come 
in contact with their objects and follow as it were the 
nature of the mind. 

VI. Dharana Concentration ^ranwfefKq ^K*lt. Con- 
centration is the steadfastness of the mind. 

VII. Dbyana Meditation era ui?NmMcn '<2JRR. The 
continuation there of the mental effort (to understand) 
is meditation (nf). 

VIII. Samadhi Trance contemplation tf^mra r>* 
^^q^ji^^ ^*ufa: The same when shining with the light 
of the object alone, and devoid as it were of itself, is 
trance (or contemplation, Samadhi). 

These are the eight Yogaugas which a Yogi must 

adopt for his perception. Of these again we see that 

some have the mental side more 

Yogangas ami Pari- predominant, whereas others have 


mostly to be actualised in exterior 

action. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi which are purely 
of the Samprajnata type and also the UWWW and JWTflT 
which are accessories to them serve to cleanse the mind of 
its impurities and make it steady and can therefore be 
assimilated as being the same with the Parikarmas men- 
tioned in Book I, Sutras 84-39 (fin^i fawmt 
(35) f%q?if<ft en fli^/^T flsre: f^ifoftwft, (36) 

(37) ftaTTJTftBRi WT fati<R (38) *5f<rf*T5TWl*nsiM <n (39) 

Of course these Samadhis of the 
Samprajnata type only serve to steady the mind 
and to take it in attainin discriminative knowlede. 

i ) 


In this connection I think it will not be out of place 
for me to mention the other remaining accessories for 
cleaning .the mind as mentioned in Book I, viz., tNtanr^n- 
Sf^ftffamt ysngwnwrrot HreTRTftro'ireT^'w (By cultivating 
habits of friendliness, compassion, complacency and 
indifference towards happiness, misery, virtue and vice 
(respectively) the mind becomes pure. 

This means that we are to cultivate the habit of 

friendliness towards those who are happy ; this will indeed 

remove all jealous feelings, and thereby 

Maitri Karuna cleanse the mind and make it and Upeksha. 

pure. We must cultivate the habit 
of compassion towards those who are suffering pain ; 
thus when the mind shows compassion which means that 
it wishes to remove the miseries of others as if they were his 
own, it becomes cleansed of the dirt of the desire of doing 
injury to others for compassion is only another name for 
sympathy which naturally brings oneself to the level of 
others towards whom he may be sympathetic. Next comes 
the habit of complacency which one should diligently 
cultivate as it makes our minds pleasurably inclined to- 
wards those who are virtuous. This removes the dirt of 
envy from the mind. Next comes the habit of indiffer- 
ence which we should acquire towards vice in vicious 
persons. We should acquire the habit of remaining 
indifferent where we cannot sympathise, as for example, 
with persons who are vicious ; we should not on any account 
get angry towards those who are bad and with whom 
sympathy was not possible. This will remove the dirt of 
anger. It will be clearly seen here that *j\, mm, gfc* 
and B^T mentioned here are only the different aspects 
of universal sympathy which should remove all perversities 
in our nature and unite us with our fellow-beings. This 
is the positive aspect of the mind with reference to the 


abstinence of injury (^f^i mentioned, under Yamas) 
which will cleanse the mind and make it fit for the appli- 
cation of the means of (5 raddha) ^IIT, etc. For unless 
the mind is pure, there is indeed no scope for the appli- 
cation of means of "131, etc. for making the mind 
steady. (^*lt H^RsWfewTCTRlt T H ^tnqr. few <*9Rf) 
It will be seen that these represent the mental endeavours 
to cleanse the mind and to make it fit for the proper mani- 
festation of Sraddha, etc., and thus to steady it towards 
attaining the true discriminative knowledge. 

Again of the Parikarmas by WJT, *=2TR and ^'fl'sna *wrfa 
and that by the habit of sympathy 

Their respective as manifested in 5ft. ^*n. etc., the 

former is a more advanced state of 

the extinction of impurities than the latter. 

But it is easy to see that ordinary minds can never 
make the beginning of their practices from these st;iges. 
They are so impure naturally that the positive universal 
sympathy as manifested in fhft, etc., by which the turbidity 
of mind is removed, are indeed things which are very hard 
to begin with. It is also necessarily difficult for them to 
steady the mind to an object as in TWHT, nr and *m\fc. Only 
men in advanced stages can begin to practise them. For 
ordinary people, therefore, some course of conduct must 
have to be discovered by which they can purify their minds 
and elevate them to such an extent that they may be in 
a position to cleanse the mind by the mental Parikarmas 
or purifications just now mentioned. Our minds also 
become steady in proportion as their impurities are 
cleansed. The cleansing of impurities only represents the 
negative aspect of the positive side of making the minds 
steady. The grosser impurities being removed, finer one 
remain, these are removed by the mental Parikarmas, 
supplemented by Abhyasa or the application of Sraddha, 


etc., for the purpose of rnaLiug the mind steady. Thus 
wheu the impurities are gradually more and more 
attenuated, at last the final germs of impurities are 
destroyed by the force of Dhyana or the habit of Nirodha 
Sarnadhi, when Kaivalya is attained. 

Now to speak of that course of conduct by which the 
gross impurities of ordinary minds 
Yamag. are removed, we have to come to 

Yamas. They are as we have said 
before ^f?*T, 3i, W9. fl^4 and smftflS ; of these ^ifV^l is 
given such a high place that it is regarded as the root of the 
other Yamas, 3J, *'g, wm^, ^Rfaf and the other Niyamas 
mentioned before only serve to make the ^rfV^T perfect. 
We have seen before that Nt, ^'31, fjfofT' and 3T<Nl serve 
to strengthen the ^%'HT since they are only the positive 
aspects of it, but now we see that not only they but other 
Yamas and also the other Niyamas sft^, H^V, ?R:, ^1ira 
and t^Tflfij^Tn only serve to make *lrV^T more and more 
perfec-t. This *f%'qi when it is performed without being 
limited or restricted in any way by caste, country, time 
and circumstances and is adhered to thoroughly universally, 
is called *TOW or the great duty of abstinence from in,ury 
is sometimes limited to castes as for example the injury 
inflicted by a fisherman and in this case it is called *ljw?! 
or restricted Ahimsa of ordinary men as opposed to universal 
Ahimsa of the Yogis called *Nn?m ; the same ^f&vr is 
limited to country as in the ease of a man who says to 
himself, " 1 shall not cause injury at a sacred place " ; and 
by time, with jeiVrence to a person who says to himself 
." 1 shall not cause injury on the sacred day of Cliaturdasi"; 
by circumstances as when a man says to himself, " 1 shall 
cause injury for the sake of gods and Brahmins only "; or 
when injury is causfd by warriors in the battle Held alone 
and in nowhere else. This restrict d Ahinisa is only for 


ordinary men who cannot follow the universal law of 
Ahimsa for a Yogi. 

Ahimsa is a great universal duty which a man should 

impose on himself in all conditions of 
AhimsJi. 11 

lire, everywhere, and at all times 

without being restricted or qualified by any limitation 
whatsoever. In Mahabharat Mokshadharmadhyaya it is 
said that the Sankhyists lay stress upon ^fwi whereas the 
Yoga lays stress upon Samadhi ; but here we see that Yoga 
also holds that Ahimsa should be the greatest ethical motive 
of all our conduct. It is by this Ahimsa alone that we 
can make ourselves fit for the higher type of Samadhi. 
All other virtues of l, ^f?J only serve to make *if%'*3T more 
and more perfect. It is not however easy to say whether 
the Sankhyists gave so much stress to ^f%'T that they 
regarded it to lead to 3Wlfa directly without the intermediate 
stages of Samadhi. We see however that the Yoga also 
lays great stress on it and holds that a mau should withhold 
from all external acts ; for, however good they may be, 
they cannot be such that they would not lead to some 
kind of injury or ff'^n towards beings, for external 
actions can never be such that they can be performed without 
doing any harm to others. \Ye have seen that from this 
point of view Yoga holds that pure works (w*fi*fr) are 
only those mental works of good thoughts in which a 
perfection of ^?f%'^T can be attained. With the growth 
of good works (w^i*8) and the perfect realisation of 
^iff 'w the mind naturally passes into the state in which 
its actions are ueither good (T^K) nor bad (*)igw) ; and 
this state is immediately followed by the state of Kaivalya. 
Veracity consists in word and thought being in 
accordance with facts. Speech and 
mind correspond to what has been 
seen, heard and inferred as such. Speech is uttered for the 



purpose of transferring one's knowledge to another. It is 
always to be employed for the good of others and not 
for their injury, for it should not be defective as with 
Yudhishthir, where his motive was bad. If, however, it 
proves to be injurious to living beings even though 
uttered as truth, it is not truth ; it is a sin only. By this 
outward appearance, this is a facsimile of virtue and oue 
gets into painful darkness. Therefore let everyone examine 
well and then utter truth for the benefit of all living 
beings. All truths should be tested by the canon of ^ft^n 

Asteya (^ 9) is the virtue of abstaining from stealing. 
Theft is the making one's own unlawfully of things be- 
longing to others. Abstinence from theft consists in the 
absence of the desire thereof. 

aurW Brahmacharyya (Continence) is the restraint of 
the generative organ, and the thorough control of sexual 

Aparigraha (^iqfal^) is want of avariciousness, the 
non-appropriation of things not one's own ; one happens 
to attain it on seeing the defects of attachment and of the 
injury caused by the earning, preservation and destruction 
of the objects of sense. 

If in performing the great duty of ^rtV^i and the other 
The purification of virtues which are auxiliary to it. a 
mind ' man be troubled by the thoughts 

of sin, he should try to remove the sinful ideas by 
habituating himself to ideas which are contrary to 
them. Thus it is said if the high fever of the sins opposed 
to the virtues tend to push him along the wrong path, he 
should in order to drive them away entertain ideas like the 
following : Being burnt up as I am in the fires of the 
world, I have taken refuge in the practice of Yoga giving 
as it does protection to all living beings. Were I to take 


up the sins having once given them up I should certainly 
be a dog in my conduct. As the dog takes up his own 
vomit, so should I be acting it: I were to take up again 
what I have once given up. This is called the practice of 
nf*N^ ra*TT (Pratipaksha Hhabana) meditating on the 
opposites of the temptations. 

A classification of the sins of f^T, etc., may be made 

according as they are actually done, 

A classification of O r caused to be done, or permitted to 


be done ; and these again may be 

further divided according as they are preceded by desire, 
anger and ignorance ; these are again slight, middling or 
intense. Thus we see that there may be twenty-seven 
kinds of these sins. Mild, middling and intense are again 
threefold each mild-mild, mild-middling and mild-intense. 
Middling-mild, middling-middling and middling-intense. 
Also intense-mild, intense-middling, and intense-intense. 
Thus there may be eighty-one kinds. This again becomes 
infinite on account of rule (fa9*0, option (fa*'^) and 
conjunction (^gw^). 

The contrary tendency consists in the notion that these 
immoral tendencies cause an infinity 

Thinking of the eon- o f p a i ns an( ] untrne cognition. Pain 
tmry tendencies. . 

and unwisdom are the unending fruits 

of these immoral tendencies and that' in this idea lies the 
power which brings the habit of giving a contrary trend 
to our thoughts. 

These Yarnas together with the Niyamas which are 
iroingr to be described are called 


Kriya Yoga. fcrawtT, by the performance of which 

men become fit and gradually rise 

to the state of TIT^T by ^roifa and attain Kaivalya. 

This course thus represents the first stage with which 

ordinary people should begin their Yoga work. 


But people who are mere advanced and naturally 
possess the virtues mentioned in Yama, have no necessity 
of making their beginning therefrom. 

Thus it is said that some people may make their begin- 
ning with the Niyamas, rfT., ^rens 

Those who made their an d t'JTUfaWT it is for this reason 
beginning with the . , , 

Niyamas that though they are mentioned under 

the Niyamas, they are also specially 
selected and spoken of as the fipilJftl in the very first 
rule of the second Boko cR;^imr^qf'n^T*iifa farawii: ; 
<tq; means the strength of remaining unchanged in changes 
like that of heat and cold, hunger and thirst, standing 
and sitting; the absence of speech ^nwrtf and the absence 
of social indications. 

*3Tn9 means the study of philosophy and the repeti- 
tion of the syllable Aum. 

r^nftwr This Isvarapranidhana is different from 
the Iswara Pran id liana mentioned in Book 1. where it 
meant love, homage and adoration of god, by virtue of 
which god by his grace makes Samadhi easy for the Yogi. 
Here it is a kind of fagiqfr and hence it means the 
bestowal of all our actions to the Great Teacher, God, i. c., 
to work, not for one's own self but for God, so that 
a man desists from all desires of gaining any fruit 

"When these are duly performed the afflictions become 
gradually attenuated and trance is brought about. The 
afflictions thus attenuated become characterised by unpro- 
ductiveness, and when their seed-power has as it were, 
been burnt up by the fire of high intellection and the 
mind untouched by afflictions come up to the distinct 
natures of the Purusha and **r, the mind naturally 
returns to its own primal cause Prakriti and Kaivalya is 


Those who are already much advanced do not require 
even this Kriyayoga (%n*itl)> as 

About those who are t ] le j r afflictions are already in man in 
naturally much ad- 
vanced. an attenuated state, and their minds in 

a fit condition to adapt themselves to 

Samadhi; they can therefore begin all at once with Tn^qfa. 
So in the first chapter it is with respect to these advanced 
men that it has been said that Kaivalya can be attained 
by Abhyasa ('swig) and Vairagya without adopting the 

5farar<WT-:n sfmq fwi II. :2) at the Niyama Kriya 
Yogas only Saucha (srN) and Santosha (^wfa) remain 
to be said. Saucha (afN) means cleanliness of body and 
mind. Cleanliness of body is brought about by water, 
cleanliness of mind is brought about by the removal of 
the mental impurities of pride, jealousy and vanity. 

Santosha ( ^RTfa ) contentment is the absence of desire to 
possess more than is necessary for the preservation of one's 
life. It should be added that this is the natural result of 
the correction of the appropriation of others' things (*f?f). 

At the close of this section on the Yamas and Niyamas, 
it is best to note their difference which lies principally 
in this that the former are the negative virtres, whereas 
the latter are positive ones. The former can and there- 
fore must be practised at all stages of Yoga, whereas the 
last being positive are attainable only by the distinct 
growth of mind through Yoga. The virtues of non-injury, 
truthfulness, sex-restraint, etc., should be adhered to at all 
stages of the Yoga practice. They are indispensable for 
steadying the mind. 

It is said that in the presence of a person who has 
acquired steadiness in ^f^n all animals give up their habits 
of enmity ; when a person becomes steady in truthfulness, 
whatever he says becomes fulfilled. When a person 


becomes steady in *tw absence of theft, all jewels from 
different quarters approach him. 

Continence being confirmed, vigour is obtained. 
Non-covetiousness being confirmed, the knowledge of the 
causes of births is attained. By the steadiness of cleanli- 
ness, disinclination to this body and cessation of contact 
with others is obtained. 

When the mind attains internal aft^ or cleanliness 
of mind, his *T? becomes pure, and he acquires high- 
ttiindedness one-pointedness, control of the senses and fit- 
ness of the knowledge of self. By the steadiness of 
contentment comes the acquisition of extreme happiness. 
By steadiness of fftf v the dirt of this veil is removed and 
from that come the miraculous powers of endurance of the 
bodv ^faw, etc. and also the miraculous powers of the 
senses, viz., clairaudience and thought-reading from a 
distance. By steadiness of *n*n?l the gods, the Rshis 
and the Siddhas become visible. When Iswara is made 
the motive of all actions, trance is attained. By this 
the Yogi knows all that he wants to know just as 
it is in reality, whether in another place, another body 
or another time. His intellect knows everything as it is. 

It should not, however, be said, says n^frf, that in 
as much as the wait! ^fllfa is attained by making Iswara 


the motive of all actions, the remaining 

Iswara Pranidliarm seven Yogangas are useless. For 
and the other Togaiigas. 

these Yogangas are useful in the 

attainment of that mental rnood which devotes all actions 
to the purposes of Iswara. They are also useful in the 
attainment of ^Hiina *Wfa by separate kinds of their 
collocations, and Samadhi also leads to the fruition of 
W5fT?T ?rfa but this meditation on Iswara though it is itself a 
species of ^'jTJjf'WT itself, Samprajnata Yoga (^RrsTRT sh*r) 
is yet more direct means than them. About the relation 


of tfTufarwr with the other Angas of Yoga, Bhikshu 
writes : It cannot be said that since Yoga o,au be attained 
by meditation on Iswara, what is the use of the other 
disciplinary practices of the Yoga, for the meditation on 
Eswara only removes ignorance. The other accessories 
bring about the Samadhi by their own specific ways of 
operation. Moreover it is by the help of meditation on 
Iswara that one succeeds in bringing about Samadhi 
through the performance of all the accessories of Yoga; so 
the other accessories of Yoga can not be regarded as 
unnecessary ; or rather it is the other accessories which 
bring Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi through meditation 
on God and thereby produce salvation since they cannot 
do that themselves : ( T ^Tijfatnin,^ ^f^t 


?[ T 

fii<i i ) 
Asanas are secured by slackening of effort by thought 

transformation as infinite. Thus 
Asanas. ^ 

posture becomes perrect and effort 
to that end ceases, so that there may be no movement of 
the body ; or when the mind is transformed into the infinite 
that makes the idea of infinity its own, it brings about 
the perfection of posture ; when posture has once been 
mastered, he is not disturbed by the contraries of heat and 
cold, etc. 

After having secured stability in the Asanas a person 

should try the Pranayamas. The 
Prariayaina. i 

pause that comes after a deep 

inhalation and that after a deep exhalation are each 
called a Pranayama ; the first is called external and the 
second internal. There is however a third mode, when the 


lungs are neither too much dilated nor too much contract- 
ed there is another total restraint ; where cessation of 
both these motions take place by a single effort just 
as water thrown on a heated stone shrivels up from 
all sides. 

These can be regulated by keeping eye over space, 
span and number. Thus as the breathing becomes slower 
the space that it occupies also becomes smaller and smaller. 
Space is again of two kinds, internal and external. At the 
time of inhalation the breath occupies internal space which 
can be felt even in the soles of hand and feet, just like 
the slight touch of an ant. To try to feel this touch 
along with deep inhalation serves to lengthen the period of 
cessation of breathing. External space is the distance 
from the tip of the nose to the most remote point up to 
which breath can be felt, by the palm of the hand, or by 
the movement of any light substance like cotton, etc., 
placed there. Just as the breathing becomes slower and 
slower the distances traversed by it also becomes smaller and 
smaller. Regulations by time is seen when eye is kept 
over the time taken up in breathing by moments ; each 
moment being the fourth part of the twinkling of the eye. 
So regulation by time means the fact of our attending to 
the moments or Kshanas spent in the acts of inspiration, 
pause and respiration. These Pranayams can also be 
measured by the number of normal duration of breaths. 
The time taken by the respiration and expiration of a 
healthy man is the same as that which is measured bv 
snapping the fingers after turning the hand thrice over 
the knee, is the measure of duration of normal breath ; 
measured by 36 such Matras or measures in the first 
attempt or Udghata called mild; when it is doubled, 
it is the second Udghata (middling) when it is trebled 
it is the third Udghata (intense) called intense. Gradually 


the Yogi acquires the practice of Pranayama of long 
duration, being daily practised and being increased in 
succession of a day, a fortnight, a month, etc. Of course 
he proceeds first by mastering the first Udghata, then 
the second and so on until the duration increases up to 
a day, fortnight a month as stated before. There is also 
a fourth kind of Pranayama transcending all these stages 
of unsteady practice when the Yogi is steady in his 
cessation of breath. It must be remembered, however, 
that while the Pranayams are being practised, mind must- 
be fixed by nr and >*TT1!T to some object external or 
internal without which these will be of no avail for the 
true object of Yoga. By the practice of Pranayama 
mind becomes fit for concentration as in the Sutra 
H^4 5 rf<r*TTinwit ^T mw, where it is said that steadiness is 
acquired by RT^JT?TW, and this steadiness is acquired in the 
same way as concentration as we find also in the Sutra 

When by Pratyahara the senses are restrained from their 
external objects we have what is 
called Pratyahara, b^v which the mind 

remains as if in its own nature being altogether identified 

with the object of inner concentration or contemplation ; 

and thus when this Chitta is again suppressed the senses 

which have already ceased from coming into contact 

with other objects and become submerged in the Chitta 

itself, also cease along with it. Dharana is the concentra- 

tion of Chitta on a particular place, which is so very 

necessary at the time of Pranayamas 

mentioned before. The mind may 

thus be held steadfast in such places as the sphere of the 
navel, the lotus of the heart, the light in the brain, 
the forepart of the nose, the forepart of the tongue and 
such like parts of the body. 


Dhyana is the continuance, the changing flow of the 
mental effort in the object of Dharana 
(^KIIT) < nmediated by any other 
break of conscious states. 

Samadhi or trance contemplation results when by deep 
concentration mind becomes transformed to the form of 

the object of contemplation. By 

Pratyahara or power ot abstraction 
mind desists from all other objects except the one to 
which it is intended to be centred ; the Yogi as he thus 
abstracts his mind also tries to give it to some internal or 
external object, which is called ^TCWT ; it must also be noticed 
that to acquire the habit of wn and in order to inhibit 
the abstraction arising from the shakiness and unsteadi- 
ness of the body it is necessary to practise steadfast 
posture and to cultivate the Pranayama. Also for the 
purpose of inhibiting the distractions arising from breath- 
ing. Again in order that a man can hope to attain 
steadfastness in these he must desist from any such conduct 
which may be opposed to the Yamas, and also acquire the 
mental virtues stated in the Niyamas and thus secure 
himself against any intrusion of distractions arising from 
his mental passions. These are therefore the indirect and 
remote conditions which qualify the person for attaining 
Win, IM and Samadhi. A man who through his good 
deeds or by the grace of god is already so much ad- 
vanced that he is naturally above all such distractions 
to remove which it is necessary to practise the Yamas, the 
Niyamas, the Asanas, the Pranayama and Pratyahar, may 
at once begin with vmn ; ^K*UT we have seen means con- 
centration, with the advancement of which the mind 
becomes steady in repeating the object of its concentration, 
t.e., thinking of that thing alone and no other thing \ thus 
we see that with the practice of this state called fw or 


meditation in which the mind flows steadily in that one 
state without any interruption, and gradually with this, 
even the conscious flow of this activity ceases and the 
mind transformed into the form of the object under 
concentration becomes steady therein. We see therefore 
that Samadhi is the consummation of that process which 
begins in ^K^JJT or concentration. These three ^Kiji, JTI and 
3*nfe represent the three stages of the same process of 
which the last one is the perfection ; and these three are 
together technically called *j?w which directly leads to 
and is immediately followed by the Samprajnata state, 
whereas the other five Yogangas are only its indirect or 
remote causes merely. For Asamprajnata state however 
these three are also not so intimate, for a person who is very 
highlv advanced, or is the special object of God's grace 
may at once by intense Yairagya and Abhyasa pass 
into the Nirodha state or the state of suppression. 

By the possession of Sanyama as gradually dawns the 
knowledge of Samadhi, so the Sanyama is gradually 
strengthened. For while the dawning of this Prajnaloka 
or the light of Samadhi knowledge this Sanyama also 
rises higher and higher. This is the beginning for 
here the mind can hold *391 or concentrate and 
become one with' a gross object together with its name, 
etc., which is called the Savitarka state ; the next plane 
or stage of Sanyama is that when the mind becomes one 
with the object of its meditation without any consciousness 
of its name, etc. Next come the other two stages call"d 
*jfr*nTT and fsrf^^^a when the mind is fixed on subtle 
substances as we shall see just now. 

Samprajnata Samadhi. 

Division of 

Saniprajuata Samadhi. _ 

Savitarka Nirvitarka Savichara Nirvichara 


To comprehend its scope it is necessary to understand 
first of all the relation, between a thing, its concept and 
the particular name with which the 
concept or the thing is associated. 
It is easy to see that the thing (**), the concept (tiff), and 
the name (st?) are quite distinct. But still by force of 
association the word or name stands both for the thing 
and its concept ; the function of mind by virtue of which 
inspite of this unreality or want of their having :\ny real 
identity of connections, they seem to be so much associated 
that the name cannot be differentiated from the thing or 
its idea, is called Vikalpa. 

Now that state of Samadhi in which the mind 
seems to become one with the thing together with 
its name and concept is the lowest stage of Samadhi 
called ^f%<i<*1 ; it is the lowest stage because here the 
gross object does not appear to the mind in its true 
reality, but only in a false illusory way in which it 
appears in ordinary life associated with the concept and the 
name. This state is not different from ordinary conceptual 
states in which the particular thing is not only associated 
with the concepts and their names but also with other con- 
cepts and their various relations ; thus a cow will not only 
appear before the mind with its concept and name, but 
also along with other relations and thoughts associated 
with the cows as for example, " This is a cow, it belongs 
to so and so, it has so many hair on its body and so forth." 
This state therefore is the first stage of Samadhi in which 
the mind has not become steady and is not as yet beyond 
the range of our ordinary consciousness. 

From this comes the Nirvitarka stage when the mind 


by its steadiness can become one with its object divested 
of all other associations of name and concept, so that 
the mind is not in direct touch with the reality of the 


thing, uncontaminated by associations. The thing in this 
state does not appear to be an object of my consciousness 
but the consciousness becoming divested of all ' I ' 
or f mine ' becomes one with the object itself ; so that 
there is no such notion here, as I know this but the mind 
becomes one with the thing so that the notion of subject 
and object drops off and the result is <he one steady 
transformation of the mind as the object of its con- 
templation. This state brings home to us the real 
knowledge of the thing, diverted by other false and 
illusory associations which apart from explicating the real 
nature of the object served only to hide it. This Samadhi 
knowledge or n?n is called fHf^WT. The objects of this 
state may be the gross material objects and the senses. 

Now this state is followed by the state of ^ift^w fl^T 
which dawns when the mind neglecting the grossness of the 
object sinks deeper and deeper into its finer constituents 
and the appearance of the thing in its grosser aspects 
drops off and the mind having sunk deep, centres and 
identifies itself with the subtle Tanmatras which are the 
constituents of the atoms as a conglomeration of which 
the object appeared before our eyes in the Nirvitarka 
state. Thus when the mind after identifying itself with 
the sun in its true aspect as pure light, tends to settle 
on a still finer state of it either by making the senses so 
steady that the outward appearance vanishes or by seeking 
finer and finer stages than the grosser manifestation of 
light as such, it apprehends the Tanmatric state of the 
light and knows it as such, and we have what is called the 
^ft^TTT stage. It has great similarities with the ^fren^f 
stage, while its differences from that stage spring from 
the fact that here the object is the Tanmatra and not the 
gross Bhuta. The mind in this stage holding communion 
with the Rupa Tanmatra for example is not coloured 


variously as red, blue, etc., as in the Savitarka communion 
with gross light, for the Tanmatric light or light potential 
has no such varieties as different kinds of colour, etc., so 
that there are also no different kinds of feeling of pleasure 
or pain arising from the manifold varieties of light. So 
this is a state of a fcelingless representation of one uniform 
Tanmatric state when the object appears as a conglomera- 
tion of Tanmatras of Kupa, Rasa or Gandha as the case 
might be. This state however is not an indeterminate stage 
as the Nirvitarka stage, for this Tanmatric conception is 
associated with the notions of time, space, and causality; 
thus the mind here feels that it sees at the present time 
these Tanmatras which are of such a subtle state that 
they are not associated with, pleasures and pains. They 
are also endowed with causality, in the way that from 
them and their particular collocations originate the 

It must be noted here that the subtle objects of con- 
centration in this stage are not the Tanmatras alone but 
also other subtle substances including the ego, the Buddhi 
and the Prakriti. 

But when the mind acquires complete habit of this 
state in which the mind becomes so much identified with 
these fine objects the Tanmatras etc., that all con- 
ceptual notions of the associations of time, space, causality, 
etc., spoken of in the Savichara and the Savitarka 
state vanish away, and the mind becomes one with the 
fine object of its communion. These two kinds of 
Prajna, Savichara and Nirvichara arising from the 
communion with the fine Tanmatras have been collocated 
under one name as Vicharanugata. But when the object 
of communion is the ego as the subtle cause of the senses 
it is called ^s^ira and when the object of communion 
is the subtle cause of ego the ft called also the 


it is called ^faraig?ra. There can be no Nirvichara 
comm onion with the manifested Prakrit i as the object for 
it is not an actual state which can stand as the object of 
communion but only a state of final retirement, the 
returning back of all the effects into their primal state 
of potentiality ; so there can never be a Prajna of such a 
stage. Thus we may restate the division of Samprajnata 
Sam ad hi reconciling I. 17 with I. 42, 43, 44 as follows : 

Through the Nirvichara state, our minds become 
altogether purified and there springs the w%} or knowledge 
called ^HfT'W'O or true ; this true knowledge is altogether 
different from the knowledge which is derived from the 
Vedas or from inferences or from ordinary perceptions ; 
for the knowledge that it can give of Reality can 
never be had by any other means of knowledge either 
by perception, inference or testimony for their com- 
munication is only by the conceptual process of 
generalisations and abstractions and thus can never 
affirm anything about the things as they are in them- 
selves which are altogether different from their illusory 
demonstrations in conceptual terms which only prevent us 


from knowing the true reality. The potency of this Prajna 
arrests the potency of ordinary states of distracted COD- 
seiouness and thus attains stability. When however 
this Prajna is also suppressed, we have what is called 
the state of Nirvija Samadhi at the end of which comes 
final Prajna leading to the dissolution of the Chitta and 
the absolute freedom of the Purusha 

Samadhi we have seen is the becoming of mind's 
oneness with an object by a process of acute concentration 
on it and a continuous repetition of it with the exclusion 
of all other thoughts of all kinds. We have indeed 
described the principal stages of the advancement of 
Samprajnata Yoga but it is impossible to give an exact 
picture of it with the symbolical expressions of our 
concepts ; for the stages become clear to the mental vision 
of the Yogi as he gradually acquires firmness in his 
practice. The Yogi who is practising at once comes to 
know as the higher stages gradually dawn in his mind and 
distinguish them from each other ; it is thus a matter of 
one's own experience, so that no other teacher can advise 
him whether a certain stage which follows is higher or 
lower, Yoga itself is its own teacher ( 

When the mind passes from the Samprajnata state 
it is called Vyutthana in comparison to the Nirodha state, 
just as the ordinary conscious states are called Vyutthana 
in comparison to the Samprajnata state, the poten- 
cies of the Samprajnata state become weaker and weaker 
whereas the potencies of the Nirodha state become stronger 
and stronger and finally the mind comes to the Nirodha 
state and become stable therein ; of course this holds 
within itself a long mental history, for the potency 
of the Nirodha state can be stronger only when the 


mind practises it and remains in this suppressed condition 
for long intervals of time. This shows that the mind 
being made up of the three Gunas is always suffering 
transformations and changes. Thus from ordinary state 
of distracted consciousness it gradually becomes one 
pointed and then gradually become transformed in a 
state of an object (internal or external) when it is 
said to be undergoing the Samadhi parinama or Samadhi 
change of the Samprajnata type ; next comes the 
change, when the mind passes from the Samprajnata 
stage to the state of suppression (foCte). Here therefore 
also we see that the same w, ^reij, ^niWfft'SI'l which we 
have already described at some length with regard to 
the sensible objects apply also to the mental states. 
Thus the change from the Vyutthana to the Nirodha state 
is the >**tRfrww, the change as manifested in time, so 
that we can say that the change of Vyutthana into 
Nirodha has not yet come, or has just come, or that the 
Vyutthana state exists no longer, the mind having 
transformed itself into the Nirodha state. There is also 
here the third change of condition, when we see that the 
potencies of Samprajnata state become weaker and 
weaker, while that of the Nirodha state becomes stronger 
and stronger. These are the three kinds of change which 
the mind undergoes called the Dharma, Lakshana and 
Avastha change. But there is one difference between 
this change thus described from the changes observed in 
sensible objects that here the changes are not visible but 
are only inferrible from the passage of the mind from one 
state to another. 

It has been said that there are two different sets 
of qualities for the mind, visible and invisible. The 
visible qualities whose changes can be noticed are conscious 
states, or thought products, or percepts, etc. The invisible 


ones are seven in number and cannot be directly seen, 
but their existence and changes or modifications may 
be established by inference. These are suppression, 
characterisation, potentialisation, constant change, life, 
movements and power or energy of movements. 


In connection with the Samprajnata Samadhi some 
miraculous attainments are also described, which are said 
to strengthen the faith or belief of the Yogi, to the 
processes of Yoga as the path of salvation as the Yogi 
advances. These are like the products or the mental 
experiments in the Yoga rneth )d, by which the people may 
become convinced of the method of Yoga as being the 
true one. No reason are offered about the why of these 
attainments but they are said to happen as a result of the 
mental union with different objects. It is best to note 
them here in a tabular form. 

Object of Sanyam. 



(1) Threefold change of 
things as ^*JT, ?l^f*5 


and ^^nqft^lJT 1 | 


(2) The distinctions of 
name, external object 
' and the concept which 
ordinarily appear* uni- 
ted as one. 


Knowledge of the sounds 
of all living beings 

(3) Residual potencies 
of the nature of 

(4) Concepts alone (se- 
parated) from the 

Knowledge of previous life. 

Knowledge of other minds. 



Object or Sanyani 



(o) Over the form of body, i Sanyama. ] Disappearance (by virtue of 

the perceptibility being 

(6) Karma of fast or slow j Knowledge of death, 


(7) Friendliness, sympathy, 
and compassion. ?j*ft 

(8) Powers of elephant 

(9) Sim 


(12) Plenus of the Navel 

(13) Pit of the throat 

(14) Tortoise Tube 

(15) Coronal light 

(16) Heat 

(17) Purusha ... 

(18) Grose substantive 
the astral ?mj 

pose fulness 


(19) Act, the substantive 
appearance. egoism, 
she conjunction and ! 
the pnrposefulness of ! 



i Power of elephant. 

! Knowledge of the world 
(the geographical position 
of countries, &o. ) 

, Knowledge of the starry 

i Knowledge of their move- 
.' ments. 

i Knowledge of the system 
of the body. 

I Subdual of hunger aud 

i Vision of the perfected ones 

the seer or all knowledge 
| by prescience. 

Knowledge of the mind. 
' Knowledge of Purusha. 

i Control over the element 
from which follows atten- 
uation, other powers, per- 
fection of the body and 
non -residence by their 

Mastery over the senses ; 
and thence come the quick- 
ness as of mind, unaided 
mental perception and 
mastery over the Pradhana. 


These Vibhutis as they rise with the performance of the 

processes of Yoga gradually deepen the faith ^\ of the Yogi 

in the performance of his deeds and 

Vibhati and their thus help his main goal or ideal by 
position in the Yoga . . 

Philosophy. always pushing or drawing him for- 

wards and forwards towards it l>y the 
more and more strengthening of his faith. Divested from 
the ideal they have no value of any importance. 

After describing the nature of Karmayoga, and tin- 
way in which it leads to Jnanayoga, I believe it is time for 
us now to describe the third and the 

Bhaktiyopa and . . i - 

iswara. easiest means or attaining salvation, 

the Bhaktiyoga and the position of 
Iswara in the Yoga system with reference to a person who 
seeks deliverance from the bonds and shackles of Avidya. 

Iswara in the Yoga system is that Puiusha who is 
distinct from all others, by the fact of his being untouched 
by the afflictions or vehicles of the 
fruition of action. Other Purnshas 
are also in reality untouched by the afflictions, but they 
at least seemingly have to undergo the afflictions and 
consequently birth and rebirth, etc., until they are again 
finally released but Iswara though he is a Purusha yet 
He does not suffer any sort of bondage in any 
way. He is always free and ever the Lord. He never 
had nor will have any relation to these bonds. He is the 
teacher of the ancient teachers too beyond the range of 
the conditioning by time. 

This nature of his has been affirmed in the scriptures 
and are taken therefore as the true one on their authority. 
The authority of the scriptures are 
8 and a S ain acknowledged only because 
they have proceeded out of God or 
Iswara. The objection of an argument in a circle has no 


place here since the connection of the scriptures with 
Iswara is begiuningless. 

There is no other divinity equal to Iswara, because 
in the case of such equality there may be oppositions 
between the rival Iswaras which 
lwara, what he is. m ight therefore result in the lowering 
of any one of them. He is omni- 
scient in the highest degree for in him is the furthest limit 
of omniscience from which there is no beyond. 

This Iswara is all-merciful, and though he has no desires 

of him to satisfy yet for the sake of his devotees he 

dictates the scriptures at each evolu- 

His functions. tion of the world after dissolution. 

But he does not release all persons, 

because he has to help only so much as they deserve ; he 
does not nullify the Law of Karma, just as a king though 
he is quite free to act in any way he likes, punishes or 
rewards people according as they deserve. 

At the end of each Kalpa he adopts the pure body from 
Sattwa which is devoid of any Karmasaya and thus commu- 
nicates through it to all his devotees and 

His pnre Sattwa- dictates the scriptures. Again at the 
maya body. ^ ^ CT 

time of dissolution this body of pure 

Sattwa becomes submerged in the Prakriti ; and at the time 
of its submersion in the Prakriti Iswara wishes that it might 
come forth again at the beginning of the new creation ; 
thus it continues for ever that at each new creation the pure 
Sattw r amaya body springs forth and submerges back into 
the Prakriti at the time of the dissolution of the universe. 
In accepting this body he has no personal desires to 

satisfy as we have said before. He 
Himself untouched adopts it only for the purpose of saving 

the people by instructing them with 
knowledge and piety which is not possible without 


a pure Sattwamaya body ; so he adopts it but is not 
affected in any way by it. One who is under the control 
of Nescience cannot distinguish his real nature from it 
and thus is always led by it, but such is not the case 
with Iswara, for he is not in any way under its control, 
but onlv adopts it as a means of communicating knowledge 
to people. 

A Yogi also who has attained absolute independence 
may similarly accept one or more pure Sattwamaya 
Nirmana Chittas from Asmitamatra and may pro- 
duce 1 one Chitta as the superintendent of all these 
(fsrofaf-infiT *rremtmsi?[) Oreftiftf iraiarar fari^w swfttTi). 
Such a Chitta adopted by a true Yogi by the force of 
his meditation is not under the control of the vehicles of 
action as is the case with the other four kinds of Chitta 
from birth, Oshadhi, Mantra and Tapas. 

The Pranava or Aumkara is his name ; though at the 

time of dissolution the word of Pranava together with its 

denotative power becomes submerged 

forlsM n arI atheW rd hl th<? ?krit\ they reappear with 
the new creation just as roots 
shoot forth from beneath the ground in the rainy 
season. This Pranava is also called Swadhyaya. By 
concentration on this Swadhyaya or Pranava the mind 
becomes one-pointed and fit for Yoga. 

Now one of the means of attaining Yoga is Iswara 

o o 

Pranidhana, or worship of God. This word according to the 

commentators is used in two senses, 

Iswara Pranidhana. in the first and the second books 

of the Pa tan jala Yoga apphorisms. 

In the first book it means love or devotion to God as the one 

centre of meditation, in the second it is used to mean the 

abnegation of all desires of the fruits of action to Iswara 

and thus Iswara Pranidhana in this sense is included under 


Kriyayoga. This abnegation of all fruits of action to 

Iswara purifies the mind and makes it fit for Yoga ; this 

is distinguished from the Iswara Pranidhana of the first 

Book as the Bhabana of Pranava and Iswara in this that it 

is connected with actions and the abnegation of their fruits 

whereas the latter consists only in keeping the mind in 

worshipful state in Iswara and his word or name Pranava. 

By devotion of Iswara Prema or Bhakti he is drawn 

towards the devotee through his Nirmana Chitta of pure 

Sattwa and by his grace he removes all 

Release throngh obstructions of illness, etc., described 

the grace of Iswara. 

in I. 30, .'3 1 and at once prepares his 

mind for the highest realisation of his own absolute in- 
dependence. So for a person who can love and adore 
Iswara, this is the easiest course for attaining Samadhi. 
We can make our minds pure in the easiest way by 
abnegating all our actions to Iswara and attaining salva- 
tion by firm and steady devotion for Him This is the 
sphere of Bhaktiyoga by which the tedious complexity 
of the Yoga process may be avoided and salvation acquired 
in no time by the supreme grace of Iswara. 

This means is not indeed distinct from the general 
means of Yoga, viz., Abhyasa and 

This process not, Vairagva which applies in all stages. 
different from that tsj 

by Abbyasa and Vai- For here also Abhyasa applies to 
the devotion of Iswara as one Supreme 
Tattwa or truth and Vairagya is necessarily associated 
witli all true devotion and adoration of Iswara. 

This conception of Iswara differs from the conception 

of Iswara in the Ramanuja system in this that there 

Prakrit! and Purusha, Achit and 

Compared with hjt form the body of Iswara where- 
Raruanuja system. 

as here Iswara is considered as being 

only a special Purusha with the aforesaid powers (q^ 


T I.I.) 

In this system Iswara is not again the ^ foreign Prakriti 
in the sense of ^fwT*rt%fa but of Dharma and Adharma, 
and his agency is only in the removal of obstacles and 
thereby helping the evolutionary process of Prakriti. 

Thus Iswara is distinguished from the Iswara of San- 

kara Vedanta in this that there the 

Adwaita Vedan- ^rue existence is ascribed only of 

Iswara whereas all other forms and 

modes of Being are only regarded as illusory. 

After what we have studied above it will be easy to 

see that the main stress of the Yoga Philosophy lies in its 

method of Samadhi. The knowledge 

Samadhi and its that can be acquired by it differs from 
points of difference 11,1 i i p i i 

from perception in- a " other kinds or knowledge, ordinary 

ferences or scriptures perception, inference, etc., in this 

as sources of know- 

ledge. that it alone can bring objects before 

our mental eye with the clearest and 
most unerring light of comprehensibility in which the 
true nature of the thing is at once observed. Inferences 
and the words of scriptures are based on concepts or 
general notions of things. For the teaching of scriptures 
are manifested in words ; and words are but names, 
terms or concepts formed by noting down the general 
similarities of certain things and binding them down by a 
symbol. All deductive inferences are also based upon 
major propositions arrived at by inductive generalisations ; 
so it is easy to see that all knowledge that can be imported 
by them are only generalised conceptions. Their process 
only represents the method by which the mind can pass 
from one generalised conception to another ; so the mind 
can in no way attain the knowledge of the Real things, 
the absolute species, which is not the genus of any other 


thing; so inference and scripture can only communi- 
cate to us the nature of the agreement or similarity 
of things and not the real things as they are. Ordinary 
perception also is not of much avail here since it cannot 
bring within its scope the subtle and fine things and 
things that are obstructed from the view of the senses ; 
so knowledge by ordinary perception is limited by 
the incapacity of our senses to perceive subtle and remote 
things, and things which are obstructed from our view. 
But Samadhi has no such limitations, so the knowledge 
that can be attained by it is absolutely unobstructed, true 
and real in the strictest sense of the terms. 

By deep concentration when all other states of mind 

are checked it is centred on one thing steadily and that 

alone, the mind becomes transformed 

Samadhi and the as j t were j n {- o the form of that thing, 
intuition of Bergson. 

and thus the true nature of that 

thing at once flashes before it. It is akin to the conception 
of intuition by Bergson, the nature of which as described 
by Bergson applies in a certain measure to Samadhi. 
Thus Bergson says : " It follows that an absolute could 
only be given in an intuition whilst everything else fall 
within the province of analysis. By intuition is meant 
the kind of intellectual sympathy by which one places 
oneself within an object in order to coincide with what is 
unique in it (cf. ftiN) and consequently inexpressible. Ana- 
lysis on the contrary, is the operation which reduces the 
object to elements already known, that is to elements 
common both to it and other objects. To analyse there- 
fore is to express a thing as a function of something 
other than itself. Analysis is thus a translation, develop- 
ment into symbols, a representation taken from successive 
points of view from which we note as many resemblances 
as possible between the new object which we are studying 


and others, which we believe we know already. In its 
eternally unsatisfied desire to embrace the object around 
which it is compelled to turn, analysis multiplies without 
end the number of its points of view in order to complete 
its always incomplete representations and ceaselessly varies 
its symbols that it may perfect the always imperfect trans- 
lation. It goes on therefore to infinity. But intuition, if 
intuition is possible, is a single act. 

This view of Samadhi or intuitional trance is not 
opposed to whatever we say conceptual or perceptual in- 
telligence that they are complimentary 

Kant Bergson and to each other _ Like Kant p a tamali 

does not bring about a schism between 

science and metaphysics. The realities of metaphysical 
order the so-called things in themselves or things as they 
are, are not transcendent to the world of Phenomena, but 
are only so subtle that the senses cannot grasp them. He 
does not make the metaphysics entirely artificial, and the 
science wholly relative ; but with him both are true in 
their own respective spheres, and far from there being any 
schism between them, they are connected in one chain of 
development ; science reigns where the miud is being led 
from concepts to concepts with the dogmatic belief that all 
knowledge must necessarily start in concepts, move in con- 
cepts and end in concepts ; thinking or knowledge, as we 
call it, carries with it the belief that it comprehends all 
that is knowable, though in reality its sphere is so much 
limited that it can grasp the general notions and these 
alone. The thing as it is the real Vishesha (fMfa) apart from 
its symbolic side of conceptual representations can never 
be grasped by the conceptual side of knowledge. But the 
infra-conceptual or ultra-concept ual stages are nut unreal 
in any way though they cannot be grasped either by the 
senses or by our conceptual intelligence. To grasp them 


our mind must follow an inverse process of stopping 
its flow from concepts to concepts, but concentrated itself 
to one concept and that alone, and repeat it again and 
again to the exc'usion of all other possible concepts, and 
thus become coincided, identified as it were with it, when 
the limitations of the concept at once vanish and the thing 
shines before the mind in its true reality. Such a Prajna 
or intuitive knowledge is absolutely unerring for here the 
mind has been installed in the reality of the thing and 
merged in the very life of it. " To philosophise," according 
to Patanjali, " therefore is to invert the habitual direc- 
tion of the work of thought ; to practise it not in a 
random way but in a profoundly methodical manner; 
gradually to rise higher and higher in the acquisition of 
the true metaphysical knowledge, with a definite end in 
view until the highest stage, the one ideal consummation 
of all metaphysical knowledge is attained ; the Prakriti then 
appears in her own true nature, and her relations with the 
Purusha are also discerned and the Yogi is absolutely 
freed from all bondage of Prakriti. 

According to Patanjali it is our want of intuition of 

the reality, hidden beneath the oonti- 
Vision of a Yogi. 

nual now or our varied concepts that 

is the root of all control exercised by the Prakriti over us. 
Moral and virtuous actions are here advocated only because 
they purify the mind and help it to acquire the power of 
intuition (^fs\) by which the real nature of things is revealed 
to the Yogi ; before whose vision all obstruction melts away 
and all reality shines before him in absolute effulgence, 
nothing is too small for his intuition and nothing is too great. 
The whole philosophy from Plato to Plotinus proceeded 

out of a supposition that " a variation 

Plato. , , , . , 

can ouly be the expression and 

development of what is invariable," that " there is more 


in the immutable than iu the moving and we pass from 
the stable to the unstable by a mere diminution. But 
with Patanjali we find that he had never any such bias 
as that. Prakriti, the sphere of the mutable and the 
unstable is not on that account less true than the Purusha 
the immutable ; only their realities are of two different kinds 
and neither of them can "ever be reduced to the other. 
All evil is due to the want of right comprehension of their 
relative spheres ; stable is always stable and unstable is 
always unstable and they must not be confused by either in 
any way. All evil is begotten out of their seeming illegiti- 
mate connection which forms the basis of all. With Plato we 
have seen that there is nothing positive outside ideas, 
diminution of the Reality of which into that of the 
unstable occurs by a process of diminution by the addition of 
zero-like Platonic " non-being " the Aristotelian " matter " 
a metaphysical zero joined to the ideas multiplies it in 
space and time. In the words of Bergson " this non-being 
is an illusive nothing; it creeps between the ideas and 
creates endless agitation, eternal disquiet like a suspicion 
insinuated between loving hearts." The ideas or forms 
are the whole of intelligible reality, that is to say of truth. 
As to sensible reality, it is perpetual oscillation from one 
side to the other of this point of equilibrium. Immutability 
is more than becoming, form is more than change, and it is 
by a veritable fall that the logical system of ideas rationally 
subordinated and co-ordinated among themselves is scattered 


into a physical series of objects and events accidentally 
placed one after another. " Physics is but logic spoiled." 

Aristotle could not tolerate that ideas should thus 
exist independently by themselves but finding that he 

could not deprive them of this 

character, he pressed them into each 
other, rolled them up into a ball, and set above the 


physical world a form that was thus found to be the form 
of forms, the idea of ideas or to use his own words the 
thought of thought. Such is the God of Aristotle 
necessarily immutable and apart from what is happening 
in the world, since he is only the synthesis of all concepts 
in a single one. It is true that no one of the manifold 
concepts could exist apart such as it is in the divine 
unity; in vain should we look for the ideas of Plato within 
the God of Aristotle. But if only we imagine the God of 
Aristotle in a sort of refraction from himself, or simply 
inclining towards the world, at once the Platonic ideas 
are seen to pour themselves out of him, as if they 
were involved in the unity of his essence. In the 
movement of the universe there is an aspiration of things 
towards the divine perfection, and consequently an ascent 
towards God as the effect of a contact of God with the 
first sphere and as descending consequently from God to 
things. The necessity with Aristotle of a first motionless 
mover is not demonstrated by founding it on the assertion 
that the movement of things must have had a beginning 
but on the contrary, by affirming that this movement 
could not have begun and could never come to an end, and 
that this perpetuity of mobility could happen only if it was 
backed by an eternity of imti.utability which it unwound 
in a chain without beginning or end. 

In that revival of Platonism in Alexandria we see 
that as the possibility of an outpouring of Platonic ideas 

God exists behind us and his vision 
Neo-platonism. . . 

as sucli is always virtual and never 

actually realised by the conscious intellect. Everything 
is derived from the first principle and everything aspires to 
return to it ; remoter the emanation lower the degree of 
perfection. After the one, reason possesses the greatest 
perfection and after it comes the soul. The true then we 


see transcends the bounds of reason. " Knowledge " 
therefore of it is not won by proof, not by any inter- 
mediating process, not so that the objects remain outside 
of him but so that all difference between the knower and 
the known disappears ; it is a vision of reason into its 
own self ; it is not we who have the vision of reason, but 
reason who has the vision of its own self ; even the vision 
of reason within which subject and object are still opposed 
to each other as different from each other must itself be 
transcended. The supreme degree of cognition is the 
vision of the supreme, the single principle of things, in 
which all separation between it and the soul ceases, in 
which this latter in divine rapture touches the absolute itself, 
and feels itself filled by it and illuminated by it. He who 
has attained this veritable union with God, despises 
even that pure thought which he formerly loved, because 
it was still after all only a movement and presupposed a 
difference between the seer and the seen. This mystical 
absorption or swooning into the absolute is therefore 
the last word of the Alexandrians. Thus Edward Caird 
wrote of Plotinus, " The inmost experiences of our being 
is an experience which can never be uttered. To this 
difficulty Plotinus returns again and again from new 
points of view, as if driven by the presence of a conscious- 
ness which masters him, which, by its very nature can 
never get itself but which he cannot help striving to 
utter. He pursues it with all the weapons of a subtle 
dialectic, endeavouring to find some distinction which 
will fix it for his readers and he is endlessly fertile in 
metaphors and symbols by which he seeks to flash some 
new light upon it. Yet in all this struggle and almost 
agony of his expression, he is well aware that he can 
never find the last conclusive word for it and has to fall 
back on the thought that it is unspeakable." 


With the revival of Platonism in modern philosophy in 
Kant we see that the "beyond" the "Reality" has 

altogether eluded our grasp. There 
Revival of Platonism. .... . . 

is no intuition that carries us into 

the non-temporal ; all intuition is thus found to be sensuous 
by intuition. By changing the Platonic idea from a thing 
into a relation of the understanding, a law, he has substi- 
tuted the universal Mathematic a single and closed-in 
system of relations for the Platonic world of ideas, 
imprisoning the whole of reality in a network prepared in 
advance in which is unified and reconciled all the plurality 
of our knowledge in one universe of science. To realise 
this dream or at best an ideal, attempts have been made 
to determine what the intellect must be, and what the 
object in order that an uninterrupted mathematic may 
bind them together. And of necessity, if all possible 
experience can be made to enter thus into the rigid and 
already formed frame-work of our understanding it is 
(unless we assume a pre-established harmony) because our 
understanding itself organises nature and finds itself again 
therein in a mirror. The real things in themselves remain 
an unknown entity, a some-thing-like-non-Being and in 
its place are substituted some barren relations which 
are said to form an universe dignified by the name of 
science. Our intellect shall never be able to come into 
a touch with the reality ; it is absolutely restricted and 
limited to this innate incapability of doing anything 
but Platonising in ideas ; and as such all science only 
represents this dreamy, make-shift of symbolical relativity 
and never the Reality as it is, and metaphysics is 
impossible since it has nothing more to do than to 
parody with phantoms of things the work of con- 
ceptual arrangement which science practices seriously on 


To distinguish Patanjali from these different shades 

of representations spoken above, we 

see that he agrees with Aristotle 

in conceiving an unmoved as the cause of all that is 

endlessly moving for it is into these that the former 

unwinds itself. 

That which unwinds is the same as that which is un- 
winded ; the " unmoved " only represents the throbbings 
and pulsations of the unactualised unwindings, the absolute 
potentiality. But this "unmoved" only represents the 
ground of the comic dynamic of all mutability and change, 
but does not explain the stable and " unmoved " which 
forms the background of all our conscious experiences. 
This " unmoved " and " unmovable " of our consciousness 
of pure shining effulgence, a constant factor of all 
conceptual mobility can never be confused with it. It is 
the only true immobile which no change can effect 
altogether distinct from the universals or the particulars 
of our thought but illuminating them all in the conceptual 
illumination. No concept can ever catch hold of it. 
It is the one absolute " stable " element, all else are 
moving. Movement is the reality of matter which in none 
of its stages can in true sense be called the " unmoved." 
Matter holds within itself its own dynamic of motion ; 
it is as much real as the unmoved or stable Purusha; 
they are two independent realities and none of them can 
be said to be derived from the other and consequently 
there is no diminution of reality involved in the concep- 
tion of matter. Plato had to acknowledge the separate 
existence though he wanted to deprive it of all determinate 
qualities. Instead of making non-being colourless it would 
have been more consistent if he conceived the idea as the 
truly and absolutely colourless and the non-being of the 
equilibrium which holds within itself the principle of all 


determinations and differentiations the ground of all 
genesis and transformations which appear within and 
without as the inner and outer worlds, the microcosm and 
the macrocosm. Aristotle caught sight of this, but 
substituted for the independent reality of the ideas only 
and an ideality towards which matter is striving and thus 
made it the imanent teleology of matter. But Patanjali 
was not satisfied with it for even here the stable 
unconsciousness remained unexplained altogether ; and 
without it our intellectual life will be reduced to a mere 
mobility of parsing states without any stable principle 
with which they may be connected and unified. This 
principle to which or for which all these passing states 
form together an unified life, and the experiences of 
pleasures and pains is the Purusha, which serves as the 
external teleology of the Prakriti. The comprehension 
of this metaphysical reality is not a dream with him as 
with Kant, but a complement of our ordinary scientific or 
phenomenal experience. For the achievement of this 
final release of the Purusha it is necessary to invest the 
outgoing process of conceptual flow, to make it steady 
and one-pointed by which all the differentiating process 
being arrested the mind tends to become steady and stable 
and when the last stage is attained the nature of the 
real form of the Purusha is reflected and the outgoing 
order of phenomena by a reverse process returns back to 
the Prakriti. The Neo-platonists agree with Patanjali 
in so far as the assertion of the supreme validity of the 
process which brings about trance is concerned. Plotinus 
and Patanjali agree in their difference from Kant 
in this that there are other sources of right knowledge 
than those provided by the scanty scope of conceptual 
relativity of our thoughts. The light that they have 
shown in the illumination of the history of world-civilisation 



will manifest itself to any enquiring mind as the first 
beams of sunshine bringing messages of hope and bliss 
from the region of eternal sunshine beyond the gloomy and 
imperfect vision of our science and will always awaken us to 
believe that with reality which is hidden from our view I 
may stand face to face only if I possess the will to do it. 
Many hidden mysteries are daily being discovered by men 
of genius by this intuitive perception srfmare but none of us 
try to penetrate methodically into the depths of this land of 
eternal bliss and communion. The face of truth is hidden 
by a golden veil (ffTiRW ii?Nr *si*nqiicT g?i) and let all 
mankind combine in their efforts to draw it away and 
adore the unveiled truth as it is in itself. 

At the close of the previous sections it may be worth 
while to speak a few words on the 

Ancient and modern theories of the physical world as 
division of matter. . " . 

supplementing the views that have 

been already stated above. 

Gross matter as the possibility of sensation has been 
divided into live classes according to their relative gross- 
ness corresponding to the relative grossness of the senses. 
Some modern investigators have tried to understand the 
five Bhutas, viz., Akasa, Marut, Tej, Ap and Kshiti as 
the ether, the gaseous heat and light, liquids and solids. 
But I cannot venture to say so when I think that solidity, 
liquidity and gaseousness represent only an impermanent 
aspect of matter. The division of matter from the stand- 
point of the possibility of our sensations has a firm root 
in our nature as cognising beings and has therefore a 
better rational footing than the modern chemical division 
of matter into elements and compounds which are being 
daily threatened by the gradual advancement of cur 
scientific culture. They carry with them no fixed and 
consistent rational conception as the definition of the 


ancients but are mere makeshifts for understanding or 
representing certain chemical changes of matter and have 
therefore merely a relative value. 

There are five aspects from which gross matter can 
be viewed at. These are (1) Sthula 

Sthula Uupa. 

(gross), (2) ^*R (substantive), (3) 

Sukshma (subtle), (4) Anvaya (conjunction), (5) Artha- 
vattwa (purpose for use). The Sthula or the gross 
physical characters of the Bhutas are described as follows : 

Qualities of Earth Form, heaviness, roughness, ob- 
struction, stability, manifestation (vritti), difference, 
support, turbidity (3frrj ) hardness and enjoyability. 

Ap Smoothness (*ifl), subtlety OsfNm'), clearness 
(wr), whiteness (aftW), softness (flll^), heaviness (*fM), 
coolness, (^), conservation (TIT), purity (qfoencf), cementa- 
tion (*WH). 

Tejas Going upwards (^tlWT^ s ), cooking (qr^^f), 
burning (?^), light (^f), shining (vn^T), dissipating 
(3^'f%), energising (^t^fe), different from the charac- 
teristic of the previous ones. 

Vayu transverse motion (fa*4*3Ti), purity (qfa<^), 
throwing, pushing, strength (^i^^rt^ efsj)^ movability 
(^w), want of shadow (^^emcn) different from the 
characteristic of the previous ones. 

Akasha Motion in all directions (^r<Ttif?r.), non- 

agglomeration (-qsg^) non-obstructive (^rw'H:) different 
from the characteristic of the previous ones. 

These physical characteristics are distinguished from 

their aspects by which they appeal to the senses which are 

called their Swarupas. Earth is 

Swarupa. characterised by Gandha or smell, 

Ap by llasa or taste, Teja by Hupa, 

etc. Looked at from this view we see that smell arises 

by the contact of the nasal organ with the hard particles 


of matter, so this hardness or solidity which can so gene- 
rate the sensibility of Gandha is said to be the Svvarupa 
of Kshiti. Taste can originate only in connection with 
liquidity so this liquidity or Sneha is the Swarupa or nature 
of Ap. Light the quality of visibility manifests itself in 
connection with heat, so heat is the Swarnpa of fire. The 
sensibility of touch is generated in connection with the 
vibration of air on the epidermal surface ; so this vibrating 
nature is the Swarupa of air. 

The sensibility of sound proceeds from the nature of 
obstructionlessness, and that belongs to Akasa, so this ob- 
structionlessness is the Swarupa of Akasa. 

The third aspect is the aspect of Tanmatras which are 

the causes of the atoms or Paramanus Their fourth 

aspect is their aspect of Gunas or the 

Suksha, Anwaya qualities of y<$w (illumination), ffi?n 

and Arthavattwa 

(action), f%% (inertia). Their fifth as- 
pect is that by which they are serviceable to the Purusha 
by causing his pleasurable or painful experiences and 
finally his liberation. 

Speaking about the aggregation with regard to the 
structure of matter we see that this is of two kinds (1) 

those of which the parts are in inti- 
Aggregation. mate un i on an j f us i orij eg ^ any 

vegetable or animal body, the parts of 
which can never be considered separately. (2) Those 
mechanical aggregates or collocations of distinct and in- 
dependent parts (gcifasfrore) as the trees in a forest. 

A Dravya or a substance is an aggregate of the former 

type and is the grouping of generic 

or specific qualities and is not a 

separate entity the abode of generic 

and specific qualities like the Dravya of the Vaisheshika 

conception. The aspect of an unification of generic 


and specific qualities seen in parts united in intimate 
union and fusion is called the Dravva aspect. The ago-re- 

v c5O 

gation of parts is the structural aspect of which the side of 
appearance is the unification of generic and specific qua- 
lities called the Dravva. 

The other aggregation of Yutasiddhavayaba, i.e., the 

collocation of the distinct and independent parts is again 

of two kinds, (1) in which stress i.ay 

?S i' nds v f Ynta ' be laid to the distinction of parts, and 
sum ha Vayaba. 

(2) that in which stress is laid to their 

unity more than their distinctness. Thus in the expression 
mango-grove we see that many mangoes indeed make a 
grove but the mangoes are not different from the grove. 
Here stress is laid to the aspect that mangoes are the same 
as the grove which however is not the case when we say 
that here is a grove of mangoes, for the expression grove 
of mangoes clearly brings home to our mind the side of 
the distinct mangoe trees which form a grove. 

Of the gross elements, Akasa seems especially to require 
a word of explanation. There are accoring to Vijnana 
Bhikshu and Nagesha two kinds of Akasa, Karana or 
primal and Karya the atomic. The first or the original is the 
undifferentiated formless Tamas, for in that stage it has 
not the quality of manifesting itself in sounds (jf^q 

This Karanas later on develop into the atomic Akasa 
which has the property of sound. According to the 
conception of the Puranas, this Karyakasa evolves from 
the ego as the first envelop of Vayu or air. The Karana- 
kasa or the non-atomic Akasa should not be considered 
as mere vacuum ('fW^Twra) but must be conceived as a 
positive all-pervasive entity (^^TJM^q*?) something like 
the ether of the modern physicists. 

From this Akasa springs the atomic Akasa or the 


Kfu vak asha which is the cause of the manifestation of 
sound. All powers of hearing even though they have 
their origin in the principle of egoism reside in the Akasa 
placed in the hollow of ear. It is here that the power 
of hearing is located. When soundness or defect is 
noticed therein, soundness or defect is noticed in the power 
of hearing also. Further when of the sounds working 
in unison with the power of hearing the sounds of 
solids, etc., are to be taken in, then the power of hearing 
located in the hollow of the ear stands in need of the 
capacity of resonance residing in the substratum of 
the Akasa of the ear. This sense of hearing then, having 
its origin in the principle of ego acts when it is 
attracted by the sound originated and located in the mouth 
of the speaker, acting as a loadstone. It is this Akasa 
which gives penetrability to all bodies ; in absence of 
this all bodies would be so compact that it would be 
difficult even to pierce them with a needle. In the Sankhya 
Sutra II. 12. it is said that eternal time and space 
are of the nature of Akasa 

So this so-called eternal time and space does not differ 
from the one undifferentiated formless Tamas which we 
have spoken just now. Relative and infinite time, arises 
from the motion of atoms in space the cause of all 
change and transformations ; and space as relative position 
cannot be better expressed than in the words of Dr. B. N. 
Seal, as " totality of positions as an order of co-existent 
points, and as met it is wholly relative to the under- 
standing like order in time, being constructed on the 
basis of relations of position intuited by our empirical 
or relative consciousness. But there is this difference 
between space, order and time order : there is no unit 


of spd.ce as position (fe^) though we may conceive time, 
as, the momc'nt (^ij) regarded as the unit of change in the 
causal series. Spatial position ( f^r ) results only from the 
different relations in which the all pervasive Akasa stands 
to the various finite objects. On the other hand, space as 
extension or locus of a finite body, or Desa, has an ultimate 
unit being analysable into the infinitesimal extension quality 
inherent in the Gunas of Prakriti." 

Chitta or mind has two stages: (I) in the form of 
states such as real cognition (n*nr) 

States of Chitta. 

including perception, inference, com- 
petent evidence, unreal cognition, imagination, sleep and 
memory, (2) in the form in which all those states 
are suppressed (f*Hx^). Between the stage of complete 
out-going activity (SI^TT) and complete suppression of 
all states, there are thousands of states of infinite variety 
through which a man's experiences have to pass from the 
Vyutthana state to the Nirodha. In addition to the five 
states spoken of above, there is another kind of real 
knowledge, and intuition, called Prajna, which dawns 
when by concentration the Chitta is fixed to any one state 
and that alone. This Prajna is superior to all other means 
of knowledge either perception, inference or competent evi- 
dence of the Vedas in this that it is altogether unerring, 
unrestricted or unlimited in its scope. 

Pramana we have seen includes perception, inference 
and competent evidence. Perception 

Description of the originates when the mind or Chitta 


through the senses (ear, skin, eye, 

taste and nose) and being modified by their modifications 

by the external objects passes to them 


and generates a kind or notion or 
knowledge about them in which their specific characters 
are more predominant. 


Mind is all pervasive and it can generate its notion 
in the external world by which we have the perception of 
the thing. Like light which emits rays and pervades all, 
though it may remain in one place, the Chitta by its 
Vrittis comes in contact with the external world and is 
changed into the form of the object of perception and is 
thus the cause of perception ; as the Chitta has to pass 
through the senses it becomes coloured by them, which 
explains the fact that perception is impossible without 
the help of the senses. As it has to pass through the 
senses it undergoes the limitations of the senses, which it 
can avoid, if it can directly concentrate itself to any object 
without the help of the senses; from this originates the 
Prajna by which dawns the absolute and real know- 
ledge of the thing unhampered by the limitations of the 
senses, which can act only within a certain area or 
distance and cannot take within its sphere the subtler 

We see that in our ordinary perceptions our minds 
are drawn towards the object as iron is attracted by 
magnets. Thus Bhikshu says in explaining the Bhashya 
of IV. 17:- 

i re 

: i The objects of knowledge though inactive in them- 
selves may yet like a magnet draw the everchanging 
Chittas towards it and change the Chittas in accordance 
with their own form just as a piece of cloth is turned 
red by coming into contact with red lac. So it is 
that the Chitta attains the form of anything with which 
it comes in touch. Perception or Pratyaksha is distinguished 
from inference, etc., in this that here the knowledge arrived 
at is predominantly of the specific and special characters 


of the thing and not of the generic qualities as in 
inference, etc. 

Inference proceeds from the inference and depends upon 
the fact that certain common qualities are found in aH 
the members of a class, as distinguished from the members 
of a different class. So that the qualities affirmed of a 
class will be found to exist in all the individual members 
of that class : this affirmation of the generic characters 
of a class to the individual members that come under it is 
the essence of inference. This it seems comes very nearly 
to tracin all deductions from the dictum de ommi et 

An object perceived or inferred by a competent man 
is described by him in words with the intention of trans- 
ferring his knowledge to another ; and the mental modi- 
fication which has for its sphere the meaning of such 
words is the verbal cognition of the bearer. When the 
speaker has neither perceived nor inferred the object, and 
speaks of things which cannot be believed, the authority 
of verbal cognition fails. But it does not fail in the 
original speaker God or Iswara and his dictates the Shas- 
tras with reference to either the object of perception or of 

Viparyyaya or unreal eagnition is the knowledge of the 
unreal a knowledge which possesses a form that does 
not tally with the real nature of the thing, ?#., when 
a man sees two moons by some defect of the eye. 
Doubt (e.y.) "Is it a log of wood or a man :" The 
illusoriness of seeing all things yellow through a defect 
of the eye can only be known when the objects are 
seen in their true colour ; in doubt however the defective 
nature is at once manifest. Thus when we cannot be 
definite whether a certain thing is a post or a man. Here 
no knowledge is not definite. So we have not to wait 


till the illnsoriness of the previous knowledge is demon- 
strated by the advent of right knowledge. The evil nature 
of Viparyyaya is exemplified in Avidya Nescience 
Asmita, Raga, etc. 

It is distinguished from Vikalpa Imagination in 
this that though the latter is also unreal knowledge their 
nature as such is not demonstrated by any knowledge 
that follows but is on the other hand admitted on all 
hands by the common consent of all mankind. It is only 
the learned who can demonstrate by arguments the 
illusoriness of such Vikalpa or imagination. 

All class notions and concepts are formed by taking 
note of only the general characters of things and associa- 
ting them with a symbol called the name. Things them- 
selves however do not exist in the nature of the symbols 
or names or concepts, it is only an aspect of them that is 
dia grammatically represented by the intellect in the form 
of concepts. When the concepts are united or separated 
in our thought and language they consequently represent 
only an imaginary plane of knowledge for the things 
are not as the concepts represent them. Thus when we 
say " Chaitra's cow," it is only an imaginary relation for 
actually speaking no such thing exists as the cow of 
Chaitra. Chaitra has no connection in reality with the 
cow. When we say Purusha is of the nature of 
consciousness, there is the same illusory relation. Now 
what is here predicated of what ? Purusha is con- 
sciousness itself and there must always be a statement 
of the relationship of one to another in predication. 
Thus it sometimes breaks a concept into two parts 
and predicates one of the other, and sometimes 
predicates unity of two concepts which are different. 
f>f^t wwfrrafa, 3ifa?T 3TfiJwPn*m^ Thus its sphere has 
a wide latitude in all thought process conducted through 


language and involves an element of abstraction and con- 
struction and is called Vikalpa. This represents the 
faculty by which our concepts are arranged in analytical or 
synthetical proposition. It is said to be ar^^sri^trifft 
^?p2^ft fa^n?i:, /.<., the knowledge that springs from the 
relationing of concepts or names which relationing does 
not actually exist in the objective world as it is represented 
in prepositional forms. 

Sleep is that mental state which has for its objective 
substratum the feeling of voidness. It is called a state 
or notion of mind for it is called back on awakening when 


we feel that we have slept well, our minds are clear or 
we have slept badly, our minds are listless, wandering 
and unsteady. For a person who has to attain communion 
or Samadhi these notions of sleep are to be suppressed 
like all other notions. Memory is the retaining in mind 
of objects perceived when perception occur by the union 
of the Chitta with eternal objects according to the forms 
of which the Chitta is transformed ; it keeps these percep- 
tions, as impressions or Sanskaras b} 7 its inherent Tamas. 
These Sanskaras generate memory when such events 
occur which by virtue of associations can manifest them. 

Thus memory comes when the percept already known 
and acquired are kept in the mind in the form of impres- 
sion and ae manifested by the Udvodhakas or the associa- 
tive manifestors. It differs from perceptions in this th it 
the latter are of the nature of perceiving the unknown and 
unperceived, whereas the former serves to bring before the 
mind percepts that have already been acquired. Memory 
therefore is of the percepts acquired by real cognition, 
unreal cognition, imagination, sleep and memory. It 
manifests itself in dreams as well as in waking states. 


The relation between these states of mind and the 
Sanskaras is this that, the frequency and repetition of this 
strengthens the Sanskaras and thus ensures the revival of 
the states again. 

These states are all endowed with Snkha (pleasure), 
Duhkha (pain) and Moha (ignorance). These feelings 
cannot be treated separately from the states themselves, 
for tlieir manifestations are not different from the mani- 
festation of the states themselves. Knowledge and feeling 
are but two different aspects of the modifications of Chitta 
made out of Prakriti ; hence none of them can be thought 
separately from the other. The fusion of feeling with 
knowledge is therefore more fundamental here than in the 
tripartite division of mind. 

In connection with this we are to consider the senses 
whose action on the external world is 
known as " perceiving," " grahana," 
which is distinguished from " Pratyaksha/' which means 
the effect of " perceiving," viz., perception. Each sense 
has got its special sphere of work, e.ff., sight is that of eye, 
and this is called their second aspect, viz., Swarupa. Their 
third aspect if " Asmita " or ego which manifests itself in 
the form of the senses. Their fourth aspect is their 
characteristic of the Gunas, viz., that of manifestation (u^ra) 
action (fgpn) nd retention (figft). Their fifth aspect is that 
they are motived for the Purusha, his experiences and 

It is indeed difficult to find the relation of Manas with 
the senses and the Chitta. In more than one place Manas 
is identified with Chitta, and on the other hand, Manas is 
described as a sense organ. There is another aspect in 
which Manas is said to be the king of the cognitive and 
the motor senses. Looked at from this aspect Manas is 
possibly the directing side of the ego by which it directs 


the cognitive and the conative senses to the external world 
and is the cause of their harmonious activity for the expe- 
riences of Purnsha. As a necessary attribute of this 
directive character of Manas, the power of concentration 
which is developed by Pranayam is said to belong to 
Manas. This is the Rajas side of Manas. 

There is another aspect of Manas which is called the 
Anuvyavasaya or reflection by which the sensations (Alo- 
chana) are associated, differentiated, integrated, assimilated 
into percepts and concepts. This is possibly the Sattwika 
side of Manas. 

There is another aspect by which the percepts and 
concepts are retained (^K^F) in the mind as Sanskaras to 
be repeated or revealed again in the mind as actual states. 
This is the Tamas side of Manas. 

In connection with this we may mention Uha (positive 
premise), Apoha (negative premise) and Tattwajnana (logical 
conclusion) which are the modes of different Anuvyavasaya 
of the Manas. Along with these, will, etc., are also to be 
counted (Sec. II, 18 Yoga Varttika). Looked at from the 
point of view of Chitta, these may be regarded as the 
modifications of Chitta as well. 

The motives which keep this process of outgoing 
activity are false knowledge, and such other emotional 
elements as egoism, attachment, aversion, and love of life. 
These emotional elements remain in the mind as power 
alone in the germinal state ; or exist in a fully operative 
state when a man is under the influence of any one of them, 
or they become alternated by other ones, such as attach- 
ment or aversion or they may become attenuated by the 
meditation of contrarieties. It is according to this that 
these are called fc^H, ^nr, ftf%?r and f\^. Man's mind or 
Chitta may follow these outgoing states or experiences or 
graduallv remove these emotions which are commonly 


called afflictions and thus narrow the sphere of these ex- 
periences and lead himself towards the final release. 

All the Psychic slates described above, viz., K*u 
etc., are called either afflicted or nnaffliated according as 
thev are moved towards outgoing activity or are actuated 
by the higher motive of self-realisation and self-release to 
narrow the field of experiences gradually to a smaller and 
smaller sphere and afterwards suppress them altogether. 
These two kinds of motives, one of afflictions that led him 
towards external objects of attachment and aversion or 
love of life and that which leads him to strive for Kaivalya 
are the only motives which guide all human actions and 
psychic states. 

They influence us whenever suitable opportunities occur 
so that by the study of the Vedas, self-criticism or right 
argumentation or from the instruction of good men ^JIH 
and Yairagya may be motived by Yidya(Vight knowledge) 
and tendency for Kaivalya may appear in the mind even 
when the man is immersed in the afflicted states of 
outgoing activity. So also afflicted states may come when 
the man is deeply bent or far advanced in those actions 
which are motived by Vidya or the tendency for 

It seems that the Yoga view of actions or Karma does 
not deprive man of his freedom of will through habituation 
in one kind of psychic states or actions towaids Yyut- 
thhana or towards Nirodha. It only strengthens the im- 
pressions or Panskaras of those actual states and thus 
makes it more and more difficult to overcome the'r propen 
sity of generating their coi responding actual states and thus 
to allow him to tread an unhampered course. The other 
limitation to the scope of the activity of his free will is 
the Vasana aspect of the Sanskaras by which he naturally 
feels himself attached with pleasurable ties towards certain 


experiences and painful ones towards others. But these 
only represent the difficulties and impediments which are 
put before a man when he has to adopt that course of life 
the contrary of which he might have been practising for 
a very long period extending over many life states. 

But the free will is not curbed in any way, for this 
free will follows directly from the teleology of Frakriti 
which moves for the experiences and the liberation of the 
Purusha. So this motive of liberation which is the basis 
of all good conduct can never be subordinated to the 


other impulse, which goads the man towards outgoing 
experiences. But on the other hand this original impulse 
which attracts man towards these ordinary experiences 
as it is due to the false knowledge which identifies the 
Prakriti with the Purusha, becomes itself subordinate and 
loses its influence and power as such events occur which 
nullify the false knowledge by tending to produce a vision 
of the true knowledge of the relation of Prakriti with 
Purusha. Thus for example if by the grace of God the 
false knowledge (Avidya) is removed, the true knowledge at 
once dawns before the mind and all the afflictions lose 
their power. 

Free-will and responsibility of action cease in those life 
states which are intended for the sufferance of actions only, 
e.g., life states of insects, etc. 



Another point to be noted in connection with the main 
metaphysical theories of Patanjali is the Sphota theory 
which considers the relation of words with their ideas 
and the things which they signify. Generally these three 
are not differentiated, one from the other, and we are 
not accustomed to distinguish them from one another. 
Though distinct yet they are often identified or taken in 
one act of thought, by a sort of illusion. The nature of 
this illusory process comes to our view when we consider 
the process of auditory perception of words. Thus if we 
follow the Bhashya as explained by Yijnana Bhikshu we 
h'nd that by an effect of our organs of speech, the letters 
are pronounced. This vocal sound is produced in the mouth 
of the speaker from which place the sound moves in 
aerial waves until it reaches the ear drum of the hearer, 
by coming in contact with which it produces the audible 
sound called Dhwani. 

The special modifications of this Dhwani are seen 
to be generated in the form of letters and the general 
name for these modifications is Nada. This sound as 
it exists in the stage of Varnas or letters are also called 
Varna. If we apply the word Sabda or sound in the 
most general sense, then we can say that this is the 
second stage of sound moving towards word-cognition, 
the first stage being the stage of its utterance in the 
mouth of the speaker. The third stage of Sabda " is 
that in which the letters for example G, au, and h, of the 
word " Gauh " are taken together and the complete word 


form " Gauh " comes before our view. The comprehension 
of this complete word form is an attribute of the mind and 
not of the sense of hearing. For the sense of hearing 
senses the letter form of the sound one by one as the 
particular letters are pronounced by the speaker and as 
they approach the ear one by one in air-waves. But each 
letter form sound vanishes as it is generated, for the sense 
of hearing has no power to hold them together and 
comprehend the letter forms as forming a complete letter 
form. The ideation of this complete letter form in the 
mind is called Sphota. It differs from the letter form in 
this that it is complete, inseparable, and unified whole 
devoid of any past, and thus are c^uite unlike the letter forms 
which die the next moment that they originate. According 
to the system of Patanjali as explained by the commenta- 
tors, all significance belongs to this Sphota-form and never 
to the letters pronounced or heard. Letters when they 
are pronounced and heard in a particular order serve to 
give rise to such complete ideational word images which 
possess some denotation and connotation of meaning and 
are thus called " Sphotas," or that which illuminates. 
These are esseutialy different in nature from the sounds in 
letter forms generated in the sense of hearing which are 
momentary and evanescent and can never be brought 
together to form one whole, have no meaning and have 
the sense of hearing as their seat. 

The Faisesika view : Sankara Misra however holds 
that this " Sphota " theory is absolutely unnecessary, for 
even the supporters of " Sphota " agree that the Sphota 
stands conventionally for the thing that it signifies ; now 
if that be the case what is the good of admitting Sphota 
at all ? It is better to say that the conventionality of 
names belongs to the letters themselves, which by virtue 
pf that can conjointly signify a thing ; and it is when 


you look at the letters from this aspecttheir unity 
with reference to their denotation of one thing 'that you 
call them a Pada or name, fatwrrfl <RW ^^ f 

2. 22). So according to this view we find that there 
is no existence of a different entity called " name '' or 
" Sphota " which can be distinguished from the letters 
coming in a definite order within the range of the sense of 
hearing. The letters pronounced and heard in a definite 
order are jointly called a name when they denote a 
particular meaning or object. 

Kwnaril** view : Kumaril the celebrated scholar of 
the Mimansa school also denies the Sphota theory and 
asserts like the Kan ad as that the significance belongs to the 
letters themselves and not to any special Sphota or name. 
To prove this he first proves the letter forms as stable 
and eternal and as suffering no change on account of the 
difference in their modes of accent and pronunciation. 
H,e then goes on to show tha*; the Sphota view only 
serves to increase the complexity without any attendant 
advantage. Thus the objection that applies to the so-called 
defect of the letter denotation theory that the letters 
cannot together denote a thing since they do not do it 
individually, applies to the name-denotation of the Sphota. 
theory, since there also it is said that though there is no 
Sphota or name corresponding to each letter yet the 
letters conjointly give rise to a Sphofa or complete name. 
ste: mfr wf%fa: \ 



The letters however are helped by their potencies 
(Sanskaras) it. denotation the object, or the meaning. 
The Sphota theory has according to Kumaril and 
Parthasarathi also to admit this Sanskara of the letters 


in the manifestation of the name or the Sabda-Sphota, 
whereas they only admit it as the operating power of 
the letters in denoting the object or the thing signified. 
Sanskaras according to Kumaril are thus admitted 
both by the Sphota theorists and the Kumaril Bhatta's 
school of Mimansa, only with this difference that 
the latter with its help can directly denote the 
object of the signified, whereas the former have only to 
go a step backwards in thinking his Sanskara to 
give rise to the name or the Sabda-Sphota alone. 


Kumaril says that he take< great pains to prove the 
nullity of the Sphota theory only because if the Sphota 
view be accepted then it comes to the same thing 
as to say that words and letters have no validity so 
that all actions depending on them a\*o come to lose 
their validity. far^nfH ^l^iiqqR^nftr, Jsnf*T 3n]' aicrcr^ gsr.). 

Frafikakara : Prabhakara also holds the same view ; 
for according to him also the letters are pronounced in a 
definite order though when individually considered they 
are momentary and evanescent yet they maintain them- 
selves by their potency in the form of a Pada or name thus signify an object. Thus Saliknath Misra says 
in his Prakarana Panchika, p. 89, 

Sahara: The views of Kumaril and i'rahhakara thus 
explicated are but only elaborate explanations of the view 


of Sabara who states the whole theory in a single line 

The last letter together with the potency generated 
by the preceding letters is the cause of significance. 

Mahabhasfiya and Kaiyata : After describing the 
view of those who are antagonistic to the Sphota theory 
it is necessary to mention the Yaiakarana school who are in 
favour of it; thus we find that Kaiyata in explaining 
the following passage of Mahabhashya. 

Kaiyata says f 

The Vaiyakaranas admit the significating force of 
names as distinguished from the letters. For if the signi- 
ficating force be attributed to letters individually, then 
the first letter being quite sufficient in significating the 
object, the utterance of other letters becomes unnecessary ; 
and in this view if it is held that each letter has the 
generating power then also they cannot do it simultane- 
ously, since they are uttered one after another. On the 
view of manifestation also since the letters are manifested 
one after another, they cannot be collected together in due 
order ; if their existence in memory is sufficient, then we 
should expect no difference of signification or meaning by 
the change of order in the utterance of the letters ; that 
is " Sara," ought to have the same meaning as " Rasa." 
So it must be admitted that the power of signification 
belongs to the Sphota as manifested by the Nadas as has 
been described in detail in Vakyapadiya. 


Thus Bhartrihari says : 

. f%$T 'gfcraT forai w i 
: \\ (98) 

ufafwii ii (100) 
<?Tfc? i 
T fwsft ii (102) 

: n (49) 


: n (74) 

^ ' 
: i (89) 

't n (91) 

etc., etc., etc., etc. 

As the relation between the perceiving capacity and 
the object of perception is a constant one so is also the 
relation between the Sphota and the Nada as the manifes- 
ted and the manifestos (98). Just as the image varies 
according to the variation of the reflector as oil, water, 
etc., s'j also the reflected or the manifested image differs 
according to the difference of the manifesto!' (iOO). 
, Though the manifestation of letters, propositions and 
names occurs in one and the same time yet there seems 
to be a before and after according to the before and after 


of the Nada utterances (102). That which is produced 
through the union and disunion (of Nadas or Dhwanis) 
is bv the senses called Sphota, whereas other Pound per- 
ceptions arising from sounds are called Dhwanis (103). 
As by the movement of water the image of a thing situated 
elsewhere also appears to adopt the movement of the water 
and thus seems to move, so also does the Sphota though 
unchanging in itself yet appears to suffer change in accord- 
ance with the change of Nada which manifests it (4-9). 
As there are no parts of the letters themselves so tha 
letters also do not exist as parts of the name. There is 
again no ultimate or real difference betwen names and 
propositions (73). It is only in popular usage that they 
are regarded as difference. That which others regard as 
the most important thing is regarded as false here, for 
propositions only are here regarded as valid (74). Though 
tie letters which manifest names and propositions arc 
altogether different from them yet their powers often 
appear as quite undifferentiated from them (89). Thus 
when propositions are manifested by the cause of the 
manifestation of propositions they appear to consist of 
parts when they first appear before the mind. Thus though 
the Pada-Sphola or the Valtya-Sphota do not really con- 
sist of paits yet as the powers of letters cannot often be 
differentiated from them, they also appear often to be made 
up of parts (91). 

The Yoga View. A tout the relation of the letters to 
the Sphota, Vachaspati says in explaining the Bhashya, 
that each of the letters has the potentiality of manifesting 
endless meaning, but none of them can do it individually ; 
it is only when the letter form sounds are pronounced in 
succession by one effort of speech that the individual 
lexers by their own particular contiguity or distance from 


one another can manifest a complete word called ' the 
Sphota. Thus owing to the variation of contiguity of 
distance by intervention from other letter form sounds 
any letter form sound may manifest any meaning or 
word ; for the particular order and the association of 
letter form sounds depend upon the particular output 
of energy required in making their utterance. The 
Sphota is thus a particular modification of Buddhi, where- 
as the letter form sounds have their origin in the organ 
of speech when they are uttered, and the sense of hear- 
ing when they are heard. It is well to note here that 
the theory that the letters themselves are endless potent- 
tiality and can manifest any word-Sphotas, according to 
their particular combinations aud re-combinations, is quite 
in keeping with the main metaphysical doctrine of the 
Sankhya-Patanjala theory. 

Vakya-Spkota : What is spoken here of the letter form 
sounds and the sabda-^photas also apply to the relation 
that the sabda-Sphotas bear to propositions or sentences. 
A' word or name does not standalone; it always exists as 
combined with other words in the form of a proposition. 
Thus the word " tree" whenever it is pronounced carries with 
it the notion of a verb "asti" or "exists," and thereby 
demonstrates its meaning. The single word "tree" with- 
out any reference to any other word which can give it a 
prepositional form has no meaning. Knowledge of words 
always comes in prepositional forms, just as different 
letter form sounds demonstrate by their mutual collo- 
cation a single word or sabda-Sphota ; so the words also 
by their mutual combination or collocation demonstrate 
judgmental or prepositional significance or meaning. As 
the letters themselves have no meaning so the words them- 
selves have also no meaning; it is only by placing them 
side by side in a particular order that a meaning dawns 



in the mind. When single words ave pronounced they 
associate other words with themselves and thus appear 
to aignify a meaning. But though a single word is suffi- 
cient "by association with other words to carry a meaning, 
yet sentences or propositions should not be deemed un- 
necessary for they serve to specialise that meaning (fawro 
^fjj^:). Thus "cooks" means that any subject makes, 
something the object of his cooking. The mention of 
the subject Devadatta and the object "rice" only spe- 
cialises the subject and the object. Though the analysis 
of a sentence into the words of which it is constituted is 
as imaginary as the analysis of a word into the letter form 
sounds, it is generally done in order to get an analytical 
view of the meaning of a sentence an imaginary division 
of it as cases, verbs, etc. 

Abhihitanyayavada and Anwitabliidhanavada : This re- 
minds us of the two very famous theories about the 
relation of sentences to words, viz., " the Abhihitanyaya- 
vada and the Anwitabhidhanavada." The former means 
that words themselves can express their separate mean- 
ings by the function Abhidha or denotation ; these are 
subsequently combined into a sentence expressing one 
connected idea. The latter means that words only express 
a meaning as parts of a sentence, and as grammatically 
connected with each other ; they only express an action 
or something connected with action ; in (?amanaya) " bring 
the cow " " gam " does not properly mean " gotwa " but 
" anayananawitagotwa," that is, the bovine genus as 
connected with bringing. We cannot have a^ease of a 
noun without some governing verb and vice -.w.<$ 
(Sarvadarsana-sangraha, Co well). 

The Yoga point of view : It will be seen that strictly 
speaking the Yoga view does not agree with any one of these 
views though it approaches nearer to the Anwitabhidhana 


view than the Ablrihitanyaya view. For according to 
the Yoga view the idea of the sentence is the only true 
thing ; words only serve to manifest this idea but have 
themselves got no meaning. The division of a sentence 
into the component word conceptions, is only an imaginary 
analysis an after thought. 

Confusion the cauxe of verbal cognition : According to 
Patanjali's view verbal cognition proceeds only from a 
confusion of the letter form sounds which are perceived 
in the sense of hearing, the sabda-Sphota which is mani- 
fested in the Buddhi and the object which exists in the 
external world. These three though altogether distinct 
from one another yet appear to be unified on account of 
the Sauketa or sign (*T^qrgr<*i*iiiiaw: f <nfa^r. i 

w*w\) so that the letter form sounds, the 
sabda-Sphota and the thing can never he distinguished 
from one another. Of course knowledge can arise even in 
those eases where there is no actual external object, 
simply by virtue of the manifesting power of the letter 
form sounds T5=5THi^tn<ft ^rpg^r fsR?^: This Sanketa is 
again defned as ^fT^ q^^gtf^TfTTTarwp?: n*Fff:, q\v 
a* 5 ?:, ^taWVg: W wn^: ?. <*i 3forprrw>zirenj : ^?ft H^f?f i 
Convention is a manifestation of memory of the nature of 
mutual confusion of words and their meanings. This 
object is the same as this word, and this word is the same 
as this object. Thus there is no actual unity of words 
and their objects; it is only imagined to be so, by begin- 
ningless tradition. This view roav well be contrasted 

*/ - - 

with the Nyaya view which says that the convention of 
words by which they signify objects are due to the will 
of God. ^snn u^FT ^?H^f ^tlfstr. ?^?r^i^q: i 

The Patanjala system admits numberless souls, one 
primal matter called Prakriti constituted of three Gunas, 
Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas, and one omniscient, all. 



powerful Iswara which is also the universal dictator 
of the scriptures of the Vedas. Iswara though he is 
a special Purusha yet differs from other Purushas in 
this that He is always free and always the lord, 
and only adopts his pure body from the Prakriti and 
appears as omniscient and all-powerful and the dictator 
of the Vedas for the good of the other Purushas 
and the Saviour of his devotees by his grace. At 
the end of each Pralaya his body merges back with 
Prakriti and at the time of its merging with Prakriti 
he wishes that it should appear again before him, at the 
time of creation, it appears at every new creation from 
cycle to cycle and so on ad infinitum. Iswara himself 
however remains untouched by any one of the qualities 
of the Prakriti and like an actor who at his sweet 
will plays different parts, ne can at his own will connect 
himself with a pure body or dismiss it. His relation with 
Prakriti consists in this that he removes by his will all 
the obstructions and impediments in the way of the 
evolving process of the Prakriti either for the experiences 
or for the liberation of the Purushas. 

Prakriti is that ultimate substance which is the 
source of all the psychical and physical phenomena. Its 
developments are seen to behave in three different aspects, 
called Sattwa (translated variously as goodness, reality, illu- 
minating entity, intelligence stuff, essence, sentiment 
principle), Rajas (translated variously as passion, energy, 
and principle of mutation), Tamas (translated variously 
as darkness, mass, inertia, obstructive entity and the 
principle of potentiality). Sattwa seems to be that aspect 
in which the energy becomes manifested and actualized, and 
Tamas is the aspect which becomes interfused with energy, 
conserves it and thus preserves it from dissipation, 
by retarding it and keeping it back within itself as 


potentiality. Prakriti is always self-evolving by virtue of 
its immanent Rajas or energy. But in its primordial state 
it is conceived as an equilibrium of the Gunas a state in 
which there is no prominence of any one of the Gunas> 
no stress, or suppression of any one of them and 
consequently there is no visible change. All actions 
and inter-actions of the Guuas at this state happen only 
in a potential way. Prakriti is thus the Noumenon 
the true potentiality the unmoved but the mother of all 

The Gunas though characterised with the qualities 
of manifestation, obstruction, and mutation are themselves 
Reals or substantive entities. The method of evolution 
(the succession from a relatively less differentiated, less 
coherent whole to a relatively more differentiated more 
coherent whole), proceeds by the different collocation of 
the Gunas by which any one of them might be more 
predominant or suppressed than others. The energy by 
which the different collocations of the Gunas may be 
explained exist already in Prakriti ; it passes however 
into states by the transcendental influence of Purushas, 
with which the Prakriti is eternally so connected that her 
changes and states should be of service to the Purushas 
either by supplying scope for their experiences or eman- 
cipation. This external teleology is the cause of the order 
and arrangement that we find in the manifold world 
without. It also explains the agreement of the external 
world with the phenomena of our mind, and gives a moral 
order and purpose to all physical events. 

The Yoga school differs from the Sankhya in holding 
Iswara to be responsible for the particular lines of develop- 
ment chosen by Prakriti, in which she is best able to be of 
service to the Purushas. She is propelled by the influence 
of the Purushas to be of service to them, but being blind 


cannot adopt the right course to be followed ; but Iswara 
though inactive, so arranges by his mere wish that all 
such obstructions or barriers of Prakriti are removed so 
that her energy flows through the nearest channel, for 
the realisation of the experiences and the emancipation 
of the Purushas; for the barriers being removed the 
potentiality of Prakriti flows out naturally and is turned 
into actual states. The Sankhya school however does not 
find necessity of any intervention from Iswara, as the 
external teleology the serviceability of Purusha is suffi- 
cient to explain all the particular lines of development in 
the evolution of Prakriti. 

The changes or the modifications of Prakriti are of 
two kinds, (1) emanations Avisheshas which are the 
mothers of other emanations, and (2) evolutions Visheshas, 
in which there are only qualitative, tern poral and condi- 
tional changes. From Prakriti, the first emanation is that 
of Buddhi the pure implicit Be-ness which is neither 
" is " nor " is not " the Ego-hood, the focal point of 
unity of all subjectivity and objectivity. From him 
emanates the ego or " Aham." From this ego, emanations 
proceed in two parallel lines towards objectivity into 
the five Tanmatras, Kshiti, Ap, Tejas, Marut and Vyoma, 
towards subjectivity into ten senses, cognitive and cona- 
tive and the Manas which possesses the characteristics of 
both and is the king of them all. This twofold emana- 
tion is possible because the Gunas themselves possess in 
a potential way the twofold natures of subjectivity and 
objectivity. From Tamnatras emanate the atoms of the 
corresponding five gross elements, Kshiti, Ap, Tejas, Marut 
and Vyoma. All the changes that occur in these five 
gross Bhutas are of the nature of change of quality, e.g.) 
of colour, form, etc., due to the peculiar placings and 
replaeings of different kinds of atoms. This includes 


the two other kinds of things due to the order of the 
appearance of qualities as future, or potential present 
or actual, and past or latent, and also such conditional 
changes which are involved with these, growth, decay, etc. 
The psychical changes as sensations, perceptions, ideas, etc., 
also come under this Dharma-parinama. The sum-total 
of the psychical in man including the senses, ego and 
Buddhi conceived as one unified principle is called the 
Chitta. Each Purusha has got a separate Chitta for him 
which lasts until he is finally emancipated. 

The Chittas hold within themselves the experiences of 
pleasure, pain through innumerable lives in the form of 
impressions and these are called Vasanas. It is on 
account of these Vasanas that all living beings derive 
their own peculiar pleasures and pains in their own pecu- 
liar instinctive ways. Any particular kind of Vasana 
is revived and manifested in the form of instincts which 
is suited to that state and which had been previously 
acquired by that Chitta by its experiences in a similiar 
life of his previous existence. Other VSsanSs however 
remain in a potential form only and manifest themselves 
only in other suitable lives. 

Life-state, life-time, life-experiences and death are the 
fruits of men's own action. The fruits of intensely good or 
bad actions accumulate in one life and come to fruition in 
the next through the death of the individual in the past life 
and birth in the new one. Others show themselves only 
in connection with the fructifications of some principal 
actions. Others however are sometimes altogether burnt 
up, by the rise of true knowledge. All actions performed 
in the external world as they involve at least some 
injury to insects, etc., may be called mixed (virtue and 
vice) only mental actions can be purely virtuous. Those 
who have abnegated the fruits of their actions to 


God have neither virtue nor vice accruing from their 


To refrain from doing injury to others is the greatest 
duty; other subsidiary duties such as truthfulness, absten- 
tion from stealing, control over the generative sense, 
abstention from covetousness or greediness serve only to 
heighten the glory, purity and the perfection of the great 
virtue of abstention from doing injury to others. In per- 
fecting the great duty of non-injury come also cleanliness of 
body and mind, contentment, the power of bearing all con- 
traries of heat, cold, hunger, thirst, etc., the meditation of 
the Pranava and the abnegation of the fruits of all actions 
to the Lord. As by these Chitta or mind becomes 
gradually purified, his faith in the Yoga, means of salva- 
tion increases ; concentration, meditation and contemplative 
trance powers also increase and his mind becomss naturally 
restrained from all such ideas or actions as proceed from 
Avidya, ignorance of the real nature of Prakriti and 
Purusha the cause of all the affliction of Egoism, 
attachment, aversion, love of life which are seen to tinge 
with their own hues . most of the phenomena of our life. 
Thus gradually as he advances in the Samprajnata stage 
he selects subtler and subtler objects for his contemplation 
and finally all objects cease in. his Asamprajnata state 
and his mind remains in a vacant restrained state ; and 
with the increase of habit in this state all the seeds of 
the potencies of the afflicted phenomenal states becomes 
burnt up the Buddhi becomes almost as pure as the 
Purusha himself and catches the true reflection of the 
Purusha and the Chitta as all its actions are fulfilled 
naturally merge back again into the Prakriti, leaving the 
Purusha absolutely independent. 

Those who are already in an advanced state need not 
begin with the elementary duties of Satya, Asteya, 


Brahmacharya, Aparigraha with the the Niyamas, as 
Saucha, Santosha, etc., or with the Asanas as Pranayamas 
but may directly begin with the contemplative practices 
with great faith in Yoga and restrain themselves from 
all states of worldly experience due to the seeds of the 
Avidya afflictions. 

Devotion to God and meditation of his name the 
Pranava is however the shortest and easiest way of attain- 
ing the Yoga salvation. For God being pleased all 
hindrances are removed by his grace and a man may 
attains alvation in no time. Purushas are pure intelli- 
geuce which are altogether actionless and incapable of any 
touch of extraneous impurity, its connection with Prakriti 
is only seeming like the seeming redness of the crystal by a 
reflection from the Jaba flower. They are connected with 
the Prakriti from beginningless time. At the time of 
each cycle their Chittas or minds indeed become merged 
in the Prakriti but at the time of each creation through 
Avidya they become again connected with their respective 
Purushas and have to undergo all the experiences of 
phenomenal life, births and rebirths as usual. As the 
Purushas advance in the Yoga way through Samadhi, 
Prajna or intuitive knowledge dawns which gives the 
knowledge of things and is infinitely superior to other 
means of knowledge by perception, inference or testimony. 
Finally the Prajua becomes so pure that all finitude 
being transcended, infinite knowledge dawns and the Chitta 
becomes as pure as the pure form of the Purusha. This 
state is naturally followed by the letirement of the 
Chittas and the final liberation of the Purusha. 

* DEC 61981 
DEC 6 1981 




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